HOW TO ANALYZE PEOPLE ON SIGHT – FULL AudioBook – Human Analysis, Psychology, Body Language


HOW TO ANALYZE PEOPLE ON SIGHT Through the Science of Human Analysis The Five Human Types by ELSIE LINCOLN BENEDICT and RALPH PAINE BENEDICT Printed and Bound
By The Roycrofters at Their Shops In East Aurora
N. Y. Copyright, 1921
By Elsie Lincoln Benedict and Ralph Paine Benedict All rights reserved WE THANK YOU ¶ To the following men and women we wish
to express our appreciation for their share in the production of this book: _To_ DUREN J. H. WARD, PH. D., formerly of
the Anthropology Department of Harvard University, who, as the discoverer
of the fourth human type, has added immeasurably to the world’s knowledge
of human science. _To_ RAYMOND H. LUFKIN, of Boston, who made
the illustrations for this volume scientifically accurate. _To_ THE ROYCROFTERS, of East Aurora, whose
artistic workmanship made it into a thing of beauty. _And last but not least,_ _To_ SARAH H. YOUNG, of San Francisco, our
Business Manager, whose efficiency correlated all these and placed
the finished product in the hands of our students. THE AUTHORS _New York City, June, 1921_ DEDICATED
TO OUR STUDENTS CONTENTS Page HUMAN ANALYSIS 11 CHAPTER I
THE ALIMENTIVE TYPE 37 “_The Enjoyer_” CHAPTER II
THE THORACIC TYPE 83 “_The Thriller_” CHAPTER III
THE MUSCULAR TYPE 133 “_The Worker_” CHAPTER IV
THE OSSEOUS TYPE 177 “_The Stayer_” CHAPTER V
THE CEREBRAL TYPE 217 “_The Thinker_” CHAPTER VI
TYPES THAT SHOULD AND SHOULD NOT MARRY EACH OTHER 263 CHAPTER VII
VOCATIONS FOR EACH TYPE 311 What Leading Newspapers Say About Elsie Lincoln
Benedict and Her Work “Over fifty thousand people heard Elsie Lincoln
Benedict at the City Auditorium during her six weeks lecture engagement
in Milwaukee.”– _Milwaukee Leader, April 2, 1921._ “Elsie Lincoln Benedict has a brilliant record.
She is like a fresh breath of Colorado ozone. Her ideas are as
stimulating as the health-giving breezes of the Rockies.”–_New
York Evening Mail, April 16, 1914._ “Several hundred people were turned away from
the Masonic Temple last night where Elsie Lincoln Benedict, famous
human analyst, spoke on ‘How to Analyze People on Sight.’ Asked how she
could draw and hold a crowd of 3,000 for a lecture, she said: ‘Because
I talk on the one subject on earth in which every individual is most interested–himself.'”–_Seattle
Times, June 2, 1920._ “Elsie Lincoln Benedict is a woman who has
studied deeply under genuine scientists and is demonstrating to thousands
at the Auditorium each evening that she knows the connection between
an individual’s external characteristics and his inner traits.”–_Minneapolis
News, November 7, 1920._ “Elsie Lincoln Benedict is known nationally,
having conducted lecture courses in many of the large Eastern cities.
Her work is based upon the practical methods of modern science as worked
out in the world’s leading laboratories where exhaustive tests are applied
to determine individual types, talents, vocational bents and possibilities.”–_San
Francisco Bulletin, January 25, 1919._ It’s not
how much you know but what
you can DO
that counts Human Analysis–The X-Ray _Modern science has proved that the fundamental
traits of every individual are indelibly stamped in the shape
of his body, head, face and hands–an X-ray by which you can read
the characteristics of any person on sight._ The most essential thing in the world to any
individual is to understand _himself_. The next is to understand the other
fellow. For life is largely a problem of running your own car
as it was built to be run, plus getting along with the other drivers
on the highway. From this book you are going to learn which
type of car you are and the main reasons why you have not been getting
the maximum of service out of yourself. Also you are going to learn the makes of other
human cars, and how to get the maximum of co-operation out of them.
This co-operation is vital to happiness and success. We come in contact
with our fellowman in all the activities of our lives and what we get
out of life depends, to an astounding degree, on our relations with him. Reaction to Environment ¶ The greatest problem facing any organism
is successful reaction to its environment. Environment, speaking scientifically,
is the sum total of your experiences. In plain United States,
this means fitting vocationally, socially and maritally into
the place where you are. If you don’t fit you must move or change your
environment to fit _you_. If you can’t change the environment and you
won’t move you will become a failure, just as tropical plants fail when
transplanted to the Nevada desert. Learn From the Sagebrush ¶ But there is something that grows and keeps
on growing in the Nevada desert–the sagebrush. It couldn’t move away
and it couldn’t change its waterless environment, so it did what you
and I must do if we expect to succeed. It adapted itself to its environment,
and there it stands, each little stalwart shrub a reminder of what even
a plant can do when it tries! Moving Won’t Help Much ¶ Human life faces the same alternatives
that confront all other forms of life–of adapting itself to the conditions
under which it must live or becoming extinct. You have an advantage
over the sagebrush in that you can move from your city or state or country
to another, but after all that is not much of an advantage. For
though you may improve your situation slightly you will still find that
in any civilized country the main elements of your problem are the same. Understand Yourself and Others ¶ So long as you live in a civilized or thickly
populated community you will still need to understand your own nature
and the natures of other people. No matter what you desire of life,
other people’s aims, ambitions and activities constitute vital
obstructions along your pathway. You will never get far without the
co-operation, confidence and comradeship of other men and women. Primitive Problems ¶ It was not always so. And its recentness
in human history may account for some of our blindness to this great fact. In primitive times people saw each other rarely
and had much less to do with each other. The human element was then
not the chief problem. Their environmental problems had to do with such
things as the elements, violent storms, extremes of heat and cold,
darkness, the ever-present menace of wild beasts whose flesh was their
food, yet who would eat them first unless they were quick in brain and
body. Civilization’s Changes ¶ But all that is changed. Man has subjugated
all other creatures and now walks the earth its supreme sovereign.
He has discovered and invented and builded until now we live in
skyscrapers, talk around the world without wires and by pressing a button
turn darkness into daylight. Causes of Failure ¶ Yet with all our knowledge of the outside
world ninety-nine lives out of every hundred are comparative failures. ¶ The reason is plain to every scientific
investigator. We have failed to study ourselves in relation to the great
environmental problem of today. The stage-setting has been changed
but not the play. The game is the same old game–you must adjust and adapt
yourself to your environment or it will destroy you. Mastering His Own Environment ¶ The cities of today _look_ different from
the jungles of our ancestors and we imagine that because the brain of man
overcame the old menaces no new ones have arisen to take their place.
We no longer fear extermination from cold. We turn on the heat.
We are not afraid of the vast oceans which held our primitive forebears
in thrall, but pass swiftly, safely and luxuriously over their
surfaces. And soon we shall be breakfasting in New York and dining the
same evening in San Francisco! Facing New Enemies ¶ But in building up this stupendous superstructure
of modern civilization man has brought into being a
society so intricate and complex that he now faces the new environmental
problem of human relationships. The Modern Spider’s Web ¶ Today we depend for life’s necessities
almost wholly upon the activities of others. The work of thousands
of human hands and thousands of human brains lies back of every meal you
eat, every journey you take, every book you read, every bed in which you
sleep, every telephone conversation, every telegram you receive,
every garment you wear. And this fellowman of ours has multiplied,
since that dim distant dawn, into almost two billion human beings, with
at least one billion of them after the very things you want, and not a
tenth enough to go around! Adapt or Die ¶ Who will win? Nature answers for you. She
has said with awful and inexorable finality that, whether you are
a blade of grass on the Nevada desert or a man in the streets of London,
you can win only as you adapt yourself to your environment. Today our environmental
problem consists largely of the other fellow. Only those who
learn to adapt themselves to their fellows can win great or lasting rewards. Externals Indicate Internal Nature ¶ To do this it is necessary to better understand
our neighbors–to recognize that people differ from each other
in their likes and dislikes, traits, talents, tendencies and
capabilities. The combination of these makes each individual’s nature. It
is not difficult to understand others for with each group of these
traits there always goes its corresponding physical makeup–the externals
whereby the internal is invariably indicated. This is true of every
species on the globe and of every subdivision within each species. Significance of Size, Shape and Structure ¶ All dogs belong to the same species but
there is a great difference between the “nature” of a St. Bernard and
that of a terrier, just as there is a decided difference between the
natures of different human beings. But in both instances the actions,
reactions and habits of each can be accurately anticipated on sight by
the shape, size and structure of the two creatures. Differences in Breed ¶ When a terrier comes into the room you
instinctively draw away unless you want to be jumped at and greeted effusively.
But you make no such movement to protect yourself from a St. Bernard
because you read, on sight, the different natures of these two
from their external appearance. ¶ You know a rose, a violet, a sunflower
and an orchid and what perfume you are sure to find in each, by the same
method. All are flowers and all belong to the same species, just as all
human beings belong to the same species. But their respective size, shape
and structure tell you in advance and on sight what their respective
characteristics are. The same is true of all human beings. They
differ in certain fundamentals but always and invariably in
accordance with their differences in size, shape and structure. The Instinct of Self-Preservation ¶ The reason for this is plain. Goaded by
the instinct of self-preservation, man, like all other living
things, has made heroic efforts to meet the demands of his environment.
He has been more successful than any other creature and is,
as a result, the most complex organism on the earth. But his most baffling
complexities resolve themselves into comparatively simple terms
once it is recognized that each internal change brought about by his
environment brought with it the corresponding external mechanism without
which he could not have survived. Interrelation of Body and Brain ¶ So today we see man a highly evolved creature
who not only acts but thinks and feels. All these thoughts, feelings
and emotions are interrelated. The body and the mind of man are so closely
bound together that whatever affects one affects the other. An instantaneous
change of mind instantly changes the muscles of the face. A violent
thought instantly brings violent bodily movements. Movies and Face Muscles ¶ The moving picture industry–said to be
the third largest in the world–is based largely on this interrelation.
This industry would become extinct if something were to happen
to sever the connection between external expressions and the internal
nature of men and women. Tells Fundamentals ¶ How much do external characteristics tell
about a man? They tell, with amazing accuracy, all the basic, fundamental
principal traits of his nature. The size, shape and structure of a
man’s body tell more important facts about his real self–what
he thinks and what he does–than the average mother ever knows about
her own child. Learning to Read ¶ If this sounds impossible, if the seeming
incongruity, multiplicity and heterogeneity of human qualities have
baffled you, remember that this is exactly how the print in all books
and newspapers baffled you before you learned to read. Not long ago I was reading stories aloud to
a three-year old. She wanted to “see the pictures,” and when told there
were none had to be shown the book. “What funny little marks!” she cried, pointing
to the print. “How do you get stories out of them?” Printing looked to all of us at first just
masses of meaningless little marks. But after a few days at school how things
did begin to clear up! It wasn’t a jumble after all. There was something
to it. It straightened itself out until the funny little marks became
significant. Each of them had a meaning and the same meaning under all
conditions. Through them your whole outlook on life became deepened
and broadened–all because you learned the meaning of twenty-six little
letters and their combinations! Reading People ¶ Learning to read men and women is a more
delightful process than learning to read books, for every person you
see is a true story, more romantic and absorbing than any ever bound
in covers. Learning to read people is also a simpler
process than learning to read books because there are fewer letters in the
human alphabet. Though man seems to the untrained eye a mystifying mass
of “funny little marks,” he is not now difficult to analyze. Only a Few Feelings ¶ This is because there are after all but
a few kinds of human feelings. Some form of hunger, love, hate, fear, hope
or ambition gives rise to every human emotion and every human thought. Thoughts Bring Actions ¶ Now our actions follow our thoughts. Every
thought, however transitory, causes muscular action, which
leaves its trace in that part of the physical organism which is most closely
allied to it. Physiology and Psychology Interwoven ¶ Look into the mirror the next time you
are angry, happy, surprised, tired or sorrowful and note the changes wrought
by your emotions in your facial muscles. Constant repetition of the same kinds of thoughts
or emotions finally makes permanent changes in that part of the
body which is physiologically related to these mental processes. The Evolution of the Jaw ¶ The jaw is a good illustration of this
alliance between the mind and the body. Its muscles and bones are so closely
allied to the pugnacity instinct center in the brain that the slightest
thought of combat causes the jaw muscles to stiffen. Let the thought
of any actual physical encounter go through your mind and your jaw
bone will automatically move upward and outward. After a lifetime of combat, whether by fists
or words, the jaw sets permanently a little more upward and outward–a
little more like that of the bulldog. It keeps to this combative mold,
“because,” says Mother Nature, the great efficiency expert, “if you
are going to call on me constantly to stiffen that jaw I’ll fix it
so it will stay that way and save myself the trouble.” Inheritance of Acquired Traits ¶ Thus the more combative jaw, having become
permanent in the man’s organism, can be passed on to his children. ¶ Right here comes a most interesting law
and one that has made possible the science of Human Analysis: Law of Size ¶ _The larger any part or organ the better
its equipment for carrying out the work of that organ and the more does
it tend to express itself._ Nature IS an efficiency expert and doesn’t
give you an oversupply of anything without demanding that you use it. Jaws Becoming Smaller ¶ Our ancestors developed massive jaws as
a result of constant combat. As fast as civilization decreased the necessity
for combat Nature decreased the size of the average human jaw. Meaning of the Big Jaw ¶ But wherever you see a large protruding
jaw you see an individual “armed and engined,” as Kipling says, for
some kind of fighting. The large jaw always goes with a combative nature,
whether it is found on a man or a woman, a child, a pugilist or a minister. Exhibit A–The Irishman ¶ The large jaw, therefore, is seen to be
both a result and a cause of certain things. As the inheritance of a fighting
ancestor it is the result of millions of years of fighting in
prehistoric times, and, like any other over-developed part or organ, it
has an intense urge to express itself. This inherent urge is what
makes the owner of that jaw “fight at the drop of the hat,” and often
have “a chip on his shoulder.” Natural Selection ¶ Thus, because every external characteristic
is the result of natural laws, and chiefly of natural selection, the
vital traits of any creature can be read from his externals. Every student
of biology, anatomy, anthropology, ethnology or psychology is familiar
with these facts. Built to Fit ¶ Man’s organism has developed, altered,
improved and evolved “down through the slow revolving years” with one
instinctive aim–successful reaction to its environment. Every part has
been laboriously constructed to that sole end. Because of this its functions
are marked as clearly upon it as those of a grain elevator, a steamship
or a piano. Survival of the Fittest ¶ Nature has no accidents, she wastes no
material and everything has a purpose. If you put up a good fight to live
she will usually come to your rescue and give you enough of whatever
is needed to tide you over. If you don’t, she says you are not fit to
people the earth and lets you go without a pang. Thus she weeds out all
but the strong–and evolution marches on. Causes of Racial Characteristics ¶ This inherent potentiality for altering
the organism to meet the demands of the environment is especially noticeable
in races and is the reason for most racial differences. Differences in environment–climate, altitude
and topography necessitated most of these physical differentiations
which today enable us to know at a glance whether a man belongs
to the white race, the yellow race, or the black race. The results
of these differentiations and modifications will be told in the various
chapters of this book. Types Earlier than Races ¶ The student of Human Analysis reads the
disposition and nature of every individual with ease regardless of whether
that individual be an American, a Frenchman, a Kaffir or a Chinaman,
because Human Analysis explains those fundamental traits which run
through every race, color and nationality, according to the externals
which always go with those traits. Five Biological Types ¶ _Human Analysis differs from every other
system of character analysis in that it classifies man, for the first time,
into five types according to his biological evolution._ ¶ It deals with man in the light of the most
recent scientific discoveries. It estimates each individual
according to his “human” qualities rather than his “character” or so-called
“moral” qualities. In other words, it takes his measure as a human
being and determines from his externals his chances for success in the
world of today. These Rules Work ¶ Every rule in this book is based on scientific
data, has been proved to be accurate by investigations and surveys
of all kinds of people in all parts of the world. These rules do not work merely _part_ of the
time. They work _all_ the time, under all conditions and apply to every
individual of every race, every color, every country, every community
and every family. Through this latest human science you can
learn to read people as easily as you read books–if you will take the little
time and pains to learn the rules which compose your working alphabet. Do What We Want to Do ¶ It is easy to know what an individual will
do under most circumstances because every human being does what he _wants_
to do in the _way_ he prefers to do it _most_ of the time. If you
doubt it try this test: bring to mind any intimate friends, or even
that husband or wife, and note how few changes they have made in their
way of doing things in twenty years! Preferences Inborn ¶ Every human being is born with preferences
and predilections which manifest themselves from earliest childhood
to death. These inborn tendencies are never obliterated and seldom
controlled to any great extent, and then only by individuals who have
learned the power of the mind over the body. Inasmuch as this knowledge
is possessed by only a few, most of the people of the earth are blindly
following the dictates of their inborn leanings. Follow Our Bents ¶ In other words, more than ninety-nine per
cent of all the people you know are following their natural bents in
reacting to all their experiences–from the most trivial incidents
to the most far-reaching emergencies. “Took It” From Grandmother ¶ The individual is seldom conscious of these
habitual acts of his, much less of where he got them. The nearest he
comes is to say he “got it from his father” or “she takes it from grandmother.”
But where did grandmother get it? Man No Mystery ¶ Science has taken the trouble to investigate
and today we know not only where grandmother got it but what she did
with it. She got it along with her size, shape and structure–in other words,
from her type–and she did just what you and everybody else does with
his type-characteristics. She acted in accordance with her type just as
a canary sings like a canary instead of talking like a parrot, and just
as a rose gives off rose perfume instead of violet. This law holds throughout every species and
explains man–who likes to think himself a deep mystery–as it explains
every other creature. The Hold of Habit ¶ Look around you in shop, office, field
or home and you will find that the quick, alert, impulsive man is acting
quickly, alertly and impulsively most of the time. Nothing less
than a calamity slows him down and then only temporarily; while the
slow, patient, mild and passive individual is acting slowly, patiently,
mildly and passively in spite of all goads. Some overwhelming passion
or crisis may speed him up momentarily but as soon as it fades he reverts
to his old slow habits. Significance of Fat, Bone and Muscle ¶ Human Analysis is the new science which
shows you how to recognize the slow man, the quick man, the stubborn man,
the yielding man, the leader, the learner, and all other basic kinds of
men on sight from the shape, size and structure of their bodies. Certain bodily shapes indicate predispositions
to fatness, leanness, boniness, muscularity and nervousness, and
this predisposition is so much a part of the warp and woof of the individual
that he can not disguise it. The urge given him by this inborn
mechanism is so strong as to be practically irresistible. Every experience
of his life calls forth some kind of reaction and invariably
the reaction will be similar, in every vital respect, to the reactions
of other people who have bodies of the same general size, shape
and structure as his own. Succeed at What We Like ¶ No person achieves success or happiness
when compelled to do what he naturally dislikes to do. Since these likes
and dislikes stay with him to the grave, one of the biggest modern problems
is that of helping men and women to discover and to capitalize their
inborn traits. Enthusiasm and Self-Expression ¶ Every individual does best those things
which permit him to act in accordance with his natural bents. This explains
why we like best those things we do best. It takes real enthusiasm
to make a success of any undertaking for nothing less than enthusiasm
can turn on a full current. We struggle from the cradle to the grave for
self-expression and everything that pushes us in a direction opposed
to our natural tendencies is done half-heartedly, inefficiently
and disgruntledly. These are the steps that lead straight to
failure. Yet failure can be avoided and success approximated by every
normal person if he will take the same precaution with his own machinery
that he takes with his automobile. Learn to Drive Your Car ¶ If you were presented with a car by your
ancestors–which is precisely what happened to you at birth–you
would not let an hour go by without finding out what make or type of car
it was. Before a week elapsed you would have taken the time, labor
and interest to learn how to run it,–not merely any old way, but the
_best_ way for that particular make of car. Five Makes of Human Cars ¶ There are five makes or types of human
cars, differing as definitely in size, shape and structure as Fords differ
from Pierce-Arrows. Each human type differs as widely in its capacities,
possibilities and aptitudes as a Ford differs from a Pierce-Arrow.
Like the Ford or Pierce the externals indicate these functional differences
with unfailing accuracy. Furthermore just as a Ford never
changes into a Pierce nor a Pierce into a Ford, a human being never changes
his type. He may modify it, train it, polish it or control it somewhat,
but he will never change it. Can Not be Deceived ¶ The student of Human Analysis cannot be
deceived as to the type of any individual any more than you can be deceived
about the make of a car. One may “doll up” a Ford to his heart’s content–remove
the hood and top and put on custom-made substitutes–it is
still a Ford, always will be a Ford and you can always detect that it is
a Ford. It will do valuable, necessary things but only those things it
was designed to do and in its own particular manner; nor could a Pierce
act like a Ford. Are You a Ford or a Pierce? ¶ So it is with human cars. Maybe you have
been awed by the jewels and clothes with which many human Fords disguise
themselves. The chances are that you have overlooked a dozen Pierces this
week because their paint was rusty. Perchance you are a Pierce yourself,
drawing a Ford salary because you don’t know you are a high-powered
machine capable of making ten times the speed you have been making on
your highway of life. Superficialities Sway Us ¶ If so your mistake is only natural. The
world classifies human beings according to their superficialities. To the
world a human motorcycle can pass for a Rolls-Royce any day if sufficiently
camouflaged with diamonds, curls, French heels and plucked
eyebrows. Bicycles in Congress ¶ In the same manner many a bicycle in human
form gets elected to Congress because he plays his machinery for
all it is worth and gets a hundred per cent service out of it. Every
such person learned early in life what kind of car he was and capitalized
its natural tendencies. Don’t Judge by Veneer ¶ Nothing is more unsafe than to attempt
to judge the actual natures of people by their clothes, houses, religious
faith, political affiliations, prejudices, dialect, etiquette
or customs. These are only the veneer laid on by upbringing, teachers,
preachers, traditions and other forces of suggestion, and it is a veneer
so thin that trifles scratch it off. The Real Always There ¶ But the real individual is always there,
filled with the tendencies of his type, bending always toward them, constantly
seeking opportunities to run as he was built to run, forever striving
toward self-expression. It is this ever-active urge which causes him
to revert, in the manifold activities of everyday life, to the methods,
manners and peculiarities common to his type. This means that unless he gets into an environment,
a vocation and a marriage which permits of his doing what he
_wants_ to do he will be miserable, inefficient, unsuccessful and sometimes
criminal. Causes of Crime ¶ That this is the true explanation of crime
has been recognized for many years by leading thinkers. Two prison
wardens–Thomas Tynan of Colorado and Thomas Mott Osborne of Sing Sing–effectively
initiated penal reforms based upon it. Every crime, like every personal problem,
arises from some kind of situation wherein instinct is thwarted by
outside influence. ¶ Human Analysis teaches you to recognize,
on sight, the predominant instincts of any individual–in brief, what
that individual is inclined to do under all the general situations of
his life. You know what the world tries to compel him to do. If the discrepancy
between these two is beyond the reach of his type he refuses to
do what society demands. This and this only is back of every human
digression from indiscretion to murder. It is as vain to expect to eradicate these
inborn trends and put others in their places as to make a sewing machine
out of an airplane or an oak out of a pine. The most man can do for his
neighbor is to understand and inspire him. The most he can do for himself
is to understand and organize his inborn capacities. Find Your Own Type ¶ The first problem of your happiness is
to find out what type you are yourself–which you will know after reading
this book–and to build your future accordingly. Knowing and Helping Others ¶ The second is to learn how to analyze others
to the end that your relationships with them may be harmonious
and mutually advantageous. Take every individual according to the way
he was born, accept him as that kind of mechanism and deal with him in
the manner befitting that mechanism. In this way and this only will
you be able to impress or to help others. In this way only will you be able to achieve
real success. In this way only will you be able to help your fellowman
find the work, the environment and the marriage wherein he can
be happy and successful. The Four C’s ¶ To get the maximum of pleasure and knowledge
out of this interesting course there are four things to remember as
_your_ part of the contract. Read CONCENTRATEDLY ¶ Think of _what_ you are reading _while_
you are reading it. Concentration is a very simple thing. The
next C is Observe CAREFULLY ¶ Look at people carefully (but not starefully)
when analyzing them. Don’t jump at conclusions. We humans have
a great way of twisting facts to fit our conclusion as soon as we have made
one. But don’t spend all your time getting ready to decide and forget
to decide at all, like the man who was going to jump a ditch. He ran
so far back to get a good start each time that he never had the strength
to jump when he got there. Get a good start by observing carefully.
Then Decide CONFIDENTLY ¶ Be sure you are right and then go ahead.
Make a decision and make it with the confidence that you are right. If
you will determine now to follow this rule it will compel you to follow
the first two because, in order to be sure you are right, to be certain
you are not misjudging anybody, you will read each rule concentratedly
and observe each person carefully beforehand. Practise CONSTANTLY ¶ “Practice makes perfect.” Take this for
your motto if you would become expert in analyzing people. It is one easily
followed for you come in contact with people everywhere–at home, amongst
your business associates, with your friends and on the street.
Remember you can only benefit from a thing as you use it. A car
that you never took out of the garage would be of no value to you. So get
full value out of this course by using it at all times. These Rules Your Tools ¶ These rules are scientific. They are true
and they are true always. They are very valuable tools for the furtherance
of your progress through life. An understanding of people is the greatest
weapon you can possess. Therefore these are the most precious tools
you can own. But like every tool in the world and all knowledge in the
world, they must be used as they were built to be used or you will get
little service out of them. You would not expect to run a car properly
without paying the closest attention to the rules for clutches, brakes,
starters and gears. Everything scientific is based not on guesses
but laws. This course in Analyzing People on Sight is as scientific
as the automobile. It will carry you far and do it easily if you will
do your part. Your part consists of learning the few simple rules
laid down in this book and in applying them in the everyday affairs of your
life. Fewer and Truer ¶ Many things which have been found to be
true in almost every instance could have been included in this course. But
we prefer to make fewer statements and have those of bedrock certainty.
Therefore this course, like all our courses, consists exclusively
of those facts which have been found to be true in every particular
of people in normal health. IMPORTANT The Five Extremes ¶ This book deals with PURE or UNMIXED types
only. When you understand these, the significance of their several combinations
as seen in everyday life will be clear to you. The Human Alphabet ¶ Just as you can not understand the meaning
of a word until you know the letters that go into the makeup of that
word, you cannot analyze people accurately until you get these five
extreme types firmly in your mind, for they are your alphabet. Founded in Five Biological Systems ¶ Each PURE type is the result of the over-development
of one of the five biological systems possessed by all human
beings–the nutritive, circulatory, muscular, bony or nervous. Therefore every individual exhibits to some
degree the characteristics of all the five types. The Secret of Individuality ¶ But his PREDOMINANT traits and INDIVIDUALITY–the
things that make him the KIND of man he is–agree infallibly with
whichever one of the five systems PREDOMINATES in him. Combinations Common in America ¶ The average American man or woman is a
COMBINATION of some two of these types with a third discernible in the
background. To Analyze People ¶ To understand human beings familiarize
yourself first with the PURE or UNMIXED types and then it will be easy and
fascinating to spell out their combinations and what they mean in the
people all about you. Postpone Combinations ¶ Until you have learned these pure types
thoroughly it will be to your advantage to forget that there is such a thing
as combinations. After you have these extreme types well in mind
you will be ready to analyze combinations. The Five Types ¶ Science has discovered that there are five
types of human beings. Discarding for a moment their technical names,
they may be called the fat people, the florid people, the muscular
people, the bony people and the mental people. Each varies from the others in shape, size
and structure and is recognizable at a glance by his physique or
build. This is because his type is determined by the preponderance within
his body of one of the five great departments or biological systems–the
nutritive, the circulatory, the muscular, the bony or the
nervous. At Birth ¶ Every child is born with one of these systems
more highly developed, larger and better equipped than the others. Type Never Disappears ¶ Throughout his life this system will express
itself more, be more intense and constant in its functioning than
the others and no manner of training, education, environment or experience,
so long as he remains in normal health, will alter the predominance
of this system nor prevent its dictating his likes, dislikes and most
of his reactions. Effect of Eating ¶ If you do not understand why the overaction
of one bodily system should influence a man’s nature see if you
can’t recall more than one occasion when a square meal made a decided
difference in your disposition within the space of thirty minutes. If one good meal has the power to alter so
completely our personalities temporarily, is it then any wonder that constant
overfeeding causes everybody to love a fat man? For the fat man
is habitually and chronically in that beatific state which comes
from over-eating. [Illustration: 1 Alimentive the enjoyer] CHAPTER I The Alimentive Type “The Enjoyer” _Note: Bear in mind at the beginning of this
and every other chapter, that we are describing the extreme or unmixed
type. Before leaving this book you will understand combination types
and should read people as readily as you now read your newspaper._ Those individuals in whom the alimentive system
is more highly developed than any other are called Alimentives. The
alimentive system consists of the stomach, intestines, alimentary canal
and every part of the assimilative apparatus. Physical Rotundity ¶ A general rotundity of outline characterizes
this type. He is round in every direction. Fat rolls away from his elbows,
wrists, knees and shoulders. (See Chart 1) The Fat, Overweight Individual ¶ Soft flesh thickly padded over a small-boned
body distinguishes the pure Alimentive type. In men of this type
the largest part of the body is around the girth; in women it is around
the hips. These always indicate a large nutritive system in good
working order. Fat is only surplus tissue–the amount manufactured by
the assimilative system over and above the needs of the body. Fat is more soft and spongy than bone or muscle
and lends to its wearer a softer structure and appearance. Small Hands and Feet ¶ Because his bones are small the pure Alimentive
has small feet and small hands. How many times you have noted
with surprise that the two hundred pound woman had tiny feet! The inconvenience
of “getting around” which you have noticed in her is due to the
fact that while she has more weight to carry she has smaller than average
feet with which to do it. The Pure Alimentive Head ¶ A head comparatively small for the body
is another characteristic of the extreme Alimentive. The neck and lower
part of the head are covered with rolls of fat. This gives the head the
effect of spreading outward from the crown as it goes down to the neck,
thus giving the neck a short, disproportionately large appearance. The Round-Faced Person ¶ A “full-moon” face with double or triple
chins gives this man his “baby face.” (See Chart 2) Look carefully
at any extremely fat person and you will see that his features are inclined
to the same immaturity of form that characterizes his body. Very few fat men have long noses. Nearly all
fat men and women have not only shorter, rounder noses but shorter upper
lips, fuller mouths, rounder eyes and more youthful expressions
than other people–in short, the features of childhood. The entire physical makeup of this type is
modeled upon the circle–round hands with dimples where the
knuckles are supposed to be; round fingers, round feet, round waist, round
limbs, sloping shoulders, curving thighs, bulging calves, wrists and
ankles. [Illustration: 2 Typical Alimentive face] Wherever you see curves predominating in the
physical outlines of any person, that person is largely of the Alimentive
type and will always exhibit alimentive traits. The Man of Few Movements ¶ The Alimentive is a man of unhurried, undulating
movements. The difficulty in moving large bodies quickly
necessitates a slowing down of all his activities. These people are easeful
in their actions, make as few moves as possible and thereby lend an
air of restfulness wherever they go. Because it is difficult to turn their heads,
extremely fat people seldom are aware of what goes on behind them. The Fat Man’s Walk ¶ Very fat people waddle when they walk,
though few of them realize it. They can not watch themselves go by and no
one else has the heart to impart bad news to this pleasant person. Spilling Over Chairs ¶ The fat man spills over chairs and out
of his clothes. Big arm chairs, roomy divans and capacious automobiles are
veritable dykes to these men. Note the bee-line the fat person makes for
the big leather chair when he enters a room! Clothes for Comfort ¶ The best that money can buy are the kinds
of clothes purchased by the Alimentive whenever he can afford them. And
it often happens that he can afford them, especially if the Cerebral system
comes second in his makeup. If he is in middle circumstances his
clothes will be chosen chiefly for comfort. Even the rich Alimentive
“gets into something loose” as soon as he is alone. Baggy trousers,
creased sleeves, soft collars and soft cuffs are seen most frequently
on fat men. Comfort is one of the very first aims of this
type. To attain it he often wears old shoes or gloves long past
their time to save breaking in a new pair. Susceptible to Cold ¶ Cold weather affects this type. If you
will look about you the first cold day of autumn you will note that most
of the overcoats are on the plump men. How the Fat Man Talks ¶ Never to take anything too seriously is
an unconscious policy of fat people. They show it plainly in their actions
and speech. The very fat man is seldom a brilliant conversationalist.
He is often a “jollier” and tells stories well, especially anecdotes
and personal experiences. Doesn’t Tell His Troubles ¶ He seldom relates his troubles and often
appears not to have any. He avoids references to isms and ologies and
gives a wide berth to all who deal in them. Radical groups seldom number
any extremely fat men among their members, and when they do it is usually
for some other purpose than those mentioned in the by-laws. The very fat man dislikes argument, avoids
disagreeing with you and sticks to the outer edges of serious questions
in his social conversation. The Fat Man “Lives to Eat” ¶ Rich food in large quantities is enjoyed
by the average fat man three times a day and three hundred and sixty-five
days a year. Between meals he usually manages to stow away a generous
supply of candy, ice cream, popcorn and fruit. We have interviewed countless
popcorn and fruit vendors on this subject and every one of them
told us that the fat people kept them in business. Visits the Soda Fountain Often ¶ As for the ice cream business, take a look
the next time you pass a soda fountain and note the large percentage
of fat people joyfully scooping up mountains of sundaes, parfaits
and banana splits. You will find that of those who are sipping things
through straws the thin folks are negotiating lemonades and phosphates,
while a creamy frappé is rapidly disappearing from the fat man’s glass. The Deep Mystery ¶ “What do you suppose is making me so plump?”
naively inquires the fat man when it finally occurs to him–as it did
to his friends long before–that he is surely and speedily taking
on flesh. If you don’t know the answer, look at the
table of any fat person in any restaurant, café or dining room. He is eating
with as much enthusiasm as if he had just been rescued from a forty-day
fast, instead of having only a few hours before looked an equally
generous meal in the eye and put it all under his belt. The next time you
are at an American plan hotel where meals are restricted to certain
hours note how the fat people are always the first ones into the
dining room when the doors are opened! Fat-Making Foods ¶ Butter, olive oil, cream, pastry and starches
are foods that increase your weight just as fast as you eat them,
if your assimilative system is anything like it should be. Though he is the
last man in the world who ought to indulge in them the fat man likes
these foods above all others and when compelled to have a meal without
them feels as though he hadn’t eaten at all. Why They Don’t Lose Weight ¶ We had a friend who decided to reduce.
But in spite of the fact that she lived on salads almost exclusively for
a week she kept right on gaining. We thought she had been surreptitiously
treating herself to lunches between meals until some one noticed
the dressing with which she drowned her lettuce: pure olive oil–a cupful
at a sitting–“because,” she said “I must have something tasty to camouflage
the stuff.” An Experiment ¶ Once in California, where no city block
is complete without its cafeteria, we took a committee from one of
our Human Analysis classes to six of these big establishments one noontime.
To illustrate to them the authenticity of the facts we have stated above
we prophesied what the fat ones would select for their meals. Without exception their trays came by heaped
with pies, cake, cream, starchy vegetables and meat, just as we predicted. A Short Life But a Merry One ¶ According to the statistics of the United
States Life Insurance Companies fat people die younger than others.
And the Insurance Companies ought to know, for upon knowing
instead of guessing what it is that takes us off, depends the whole life
insurance business. That they consider the extremely fat man an unsafe risk
after thirty years of age is a well-known fact. “I am interrupted every day by salesmen for
everything on earth except one. But the life insurance agents leave me
alone!” laughed a very fat young lawyer friend of ours the other morning–and
he went on ordering ham and eggs, waffles, potatoes and coffee! That he is eating years off his life doesn’t
trouble the fat man, however. He has such a good time doing it! “I Should Worry,” Says the Fat Man ¶ It was no accident that “Ish ka bibble”
was invented by the Hebrew. For this race has proportionately more fat
people in it than any other and fat people just naturally believe worry
is useless. But the fat man gets this philosophy from the same source
that gives him most of his other traits–his predominating system. Digestion and Contentment ¶ The eating of delicious food is one of
the most intense and poignant pleasures of life. The digestion of food,
when one possesses the splendid machinery for it which characterizes
the Alimentive, gives a deep feeling of serenity and contentment. Since the fat man is always just going to
a big meal or in the process of digesting one he does not give himself
a chance to become ill natured. His own and the world’s troubles
sit lightly upon him. The Most Popular Type Socially ¶ “The life of the party” is the fat man
or that pleasing, adaptable, feminine creature, the fat woman. No matter
what comes or goes they have a good time and it is such an infectious one
that others catch it from them. Did you ever notice how things pick up when
the fat ones appear? Every hostess anticipates their arrival with pleasure
and welcomes them with relief. She knows that she can relax now,
and sure enough, Fatty hasn’t his hat off till the atmosphere shows improvement.
By the time Chubby gets into the parlor and passes a few of her
sunny remarks the wheels are oiled for the evening and they don’t run
down till the last plump guest has said good night. ¶ So it is no wonder that fat people spend
almost every evening at a party. They get so many more invitations than
the rest of us! Likes Complacent People ¶ People who take things as they find them
are the ones the Alimentive prefers for friends, not only because, like
the rest of us, he likes his own kind of folks, but because the other kind
seem incongruous to him. He takes the attitude that resistance is a
waste of energy. He knows other and easier ways of getting what he desires. There are types who take a lively interest
in those who are different from them, but not the Alimentive. He prefers
easy-going, hospitable, complacent friends whose homes and hearts
are always open and whose minds run on the simple, personal things. ¶ The reason for this is obvious. All of
us like the people, situations, experiences and environments which bring out
our natural tendencies, which call into play those reflexes and reactions
to which we tend naturally. Chooses Food-Loving Friends ¶ “Let’s have something to eat” is a phrase
whose hospitality has broken more ice and warmed more hearts than any other,
unless perchance that rapidly disappearing “let’s have something
to drink.” The fat person keeps at the head of his list those homey
souls who set a good table and excel in the art of third and fourth helpings. Because he is a very adaptable sort of individual
this type can reconcile himself to the other kind whenever
it serves his purpose. But the tenderest spots in his heart are reserved
for those who encourage him in his favorite indoor sport. When He Doesn’t Like You ¶ A fat man seldom dislikes anybody very
hard or for very long. Really disliking anybody requires the expenditure
of a good deal of energy and hating people is the most strenuous
work in the world. So the Alimentive refuses to take even his dislikes
to heart. He is a consistent conserver of steam and this fact
is one of the secrets of his success. He applies this principle to everything in
life. So he travels smoothly through his dealings with others. Holds Few Grudges ¶ “Forget it” is another phrase originated
by the fat people. You will hear them say it more often than any other
type. And what is more, they excel the rest of us in putting it into practice.
The result is that their nerves are usually in better working
order. This type runs down his batteries less frequently than any other. Avoids the “Ologists” ¶ When he takes the trouble to think about
it there are a few kinds of people the Alimentive does not care for. The
man who is bent on discussing the problems of the universe, the
highbrow who wants to practise his new relativity lecture on him,
the theorist who is given to lengthy expatiations, and all advocates of
new isms and ologies are avoided by the pure Alimentive. He calls them
faddists, fanatics and fools. When he sees a highbrow approaching, instead
of having it out with him as some of the other types would, he finds
he has important business somewhere else. Thus he preserves his temperature,
something that in the average fat man seldom goes far above normal. No Theorist ¶ Theories are the bane of this type. He
just naturally doesn’t believe in them. Scientific discoveries, unless they
have to do with some new means of adding to his personal comforts,
are taboo. The next time this one about “fat men dying young” is mentioned
in his presence listen to his jolly roar. The speed with which he disposes
of it will be beautiful to see! “Say, I feel like a million dollars!” he will
assure you if you read this chapter to him. “And I’ll bet the folks
who wrote that book are a pair of grouches who have forgotten what a
square meal tastes like!” Where the T-Bones Go ¶ When you catch a three-inch steak homeward
bound you will usually find it tucked under the arm of a well-rounded
householder. When his salary positively prohibits the comforts of parlor,
bedroom and other parts of the house the fat man will still see to it
that the kitchen does not lack for provender. Describes His Food ¶ The fat person likes to regale you with
alluring descriptions of what he had for breakfast, what he has ordered
for lunch and what he is planning for dinner–and the rarebit he has
on the program for after the theater. Eats His Way to the Grave ¶ Most of us are committing suicide by inches
in one form or another–and always in that form which is
inherent in our type. The Alimentive eats his way to the grave and
has at least this much to say for it: it is more delightful than the
pet weaknesses by which the other types hasten the final curtain. Diseases He Is Most Susceptible To ¶ Diabetes is more common among this type
than any other. Apoplexy comes next, especially if the fat man is also a
florid man with a fast heart or an inclination to high blood pressure.
A sudden breaking down of any or several of the vital organs is also likely
to occur to fat people earlier than to others. It is the price they
pay for their years of over-eating. ¶ Overtaxed heart, kidneys and liver are
inevitable results of too much food. So the man you call “fat and husky” is fat
but _not_ husky, according to the statistics. Fat Men and Influenza ¶ During the historic Spanish Influenza epidemic
of 1918 more fat people succumbed than all other types combined. This
fact was a source of surprise and much discussion on the part of
newspapers, but not of the scientists. The big question in treating this
disease and its twin, Pneumonia, is: will the heart hold out? Fat
seriously handicaps the heart. The Fat Man’s Ford Engine ¶ The human heart weighs less than a pound
but it is the one organ in all our machinery that never takes a rest.
It is the engine of the human car, and what a faithful little motor too–like
the Ford engine which it so much resembles. If you live to be forty
it chugs away forty years, and if you stay here ninety it stretches it
to ninety, without an instant of vacation. But it must be treated with consideration
and the first consideration is not to overwork it. A Ford engine is large
enough for a Ford car, for Fords are light weight. As long as you do
not weigh too much your engine will carry you up the hills and down the dales
of life with good old Ford efficiency and at a pretty good gait. Making a Truck out of Your Ford ¶ But when you take on fat you are doing
to your engine what a Ford driver would be doing to his if he loaded
his car with brick or scrap iron. A Ford owner who intended to transport bricks
the rest of his life could get a big-cylinder engine and substitute it
for the original but you can’t do that. This little four-cylinder affair
is the only one you will ever have and no amount of money, position
or affection can buy you a new one if you mistreat it. Like the Ford
engine, it will stand for a good many pounds of excess baggage and still
do good work. But if you load on too much and keep it there the day
will come when its cylinders begin to skip. ¶ You may take it to the service station
and pay the doctors to grind the valves, fix your carbureter and put in
some new spark plugs. These may work pretty well as long as you are traveling
the paved highway of Perfect Health; you may keep up with the procession
without noticing anything particularly wrong. But come to the hill of Pneumonia or Diabetes
and you are very likely not to make the grade. Don’t “Kill Your Engine” ¶ The records in America show that thousands
of men and women literally “kill their engines” every year when they
might have lived many years longer. How Each Finds Happiness ¶ We live for happiness and each type finds
its greatest happiness in following those innate urges determined by
the most highly-developed system in its makeup. The Alimentive’s disposition, nature, character
and personality are built by and around his alimentary system.
He is happiest when gratifying it and whenever he thwarts it he
is miserable, just as the rest of us are when we thwart our predominant
system. The World Needs Him ¶ This type has so many traits needed by
the world, however, and has such extreme capacity for enjoying life that
the race, not to mention himself, would profit greatly by his denying
himself excessive amounts of food. Enjoyment the Keynote of This Type ¶ The good things of life–rich, abundant
food and everything that serves the personal appetites–are the cravings
of this type. He purchases and uses more of the limousines,
yachts and chefs than any other three types combined, and gets more
for his money out of them than others do. The keynote of his nature is personal
enjoyment. His senses of touch and taste are also especially acute. The Fat Man Loves Comfort ¶ You can tell a great deal about a man’s
type by noting for what classes of things he spends most of his extra
money. The Alimentive may have no fire insurance,
no Liberty bonds, no real estate but he will have all the modern comforts
he can possibly afford. Most of the world’s millionaires are fat and
Human Analysis explains why. We make few efforts in life save to satisfy
our most urgent demands, desires, and ambitions. Each human
type differs in its cravings from each of the others and takes
the respective means necessary to gratify these cravings. The Alimentive craves those luxuries, comforts
and conveniences which only money can procure for him. The Fat Millionaire ¶ When the Alimentive is a man of brains
he uses his brains to get money. No fat person enjoys work but the greater
his brain capacity the more will he forego leisure to make money. When the Fat Man is in Average Circumstances ¶ Any man’s money-making ambitions depend
largely on whether money is essential to the satisfaction of his predominating
instincts. If he is fat and of average brain capacity
he will overcome his physical inertia to the point of securing for himself
and his family most of the comforts of modern life. The average-brained fat man composes a large
percentage of our population and the above accounts for his
deserved reputation as a generous husband and father. The Fat Man a Good Provider ¶ The fat man will give his last cent to
his wife and children for the things they desire but he is not inclined
as much as some other types to hearken to the woes of the world at large.
The fat man is essentially a family man, a home man, a respectable, cottage-owning,
tax-paying, peaceable citizen. Not a Reformer ¶ He inclines to the belief that other families,
other communities, other classes and other countries should work
out their own salvation and he leaves them to do it. In all charitable,
philanthropic and community “drives” he gives freely but is
not lavish nor sentimental about it. It is often a “business proposition”
with him. When the Fat Man is Poor ¶ Love of ease is the fat man’s worst enemy.
His inherent contentment, accentuated by the inconvenience of moving
about easily or quickly, constantly tempts him to let things slide.
When he lacks the brain capacity for figuring out ways and means for
getting things easily he is never a great success at anything. When the extremely fat man’s mentality is
below the average he often refuses to work–in which case he becomes
a familiar figure around public rest rooms, parks and the cheaper hotel
lobbies. Such a man finally graduates into the class of professional
chair-warmers. Fat People Love Leisure ¶ A chance to do as we please, especially
to do as little hard work as possible, is a secret desire of almost everybody.
But the fat man takes the prize for wanting it most. Not a Strenuous Worker ¶ He is not constructed to work hard like
some of the other types, as we shall see in subsequent chapters. His overweight
is not only a handicap in that it slows down his movements, but it
tends to slow down all his vital processes as well and to overload his
heart. This gives him a chronic feeling of heaviness and inertia. Everybody Likes Him ¶ But Nature must have intended fat people
to manage the rest of us instead of taking a hand at the “heavy work.”
She made them averse to toil and then made them so likable that they
can usually get the rest of us to do their hardest work for them. The World Managed by Fat People ¶ When he is brainy the fat man never stays
in the lower ranks of subordinates. He may get a late start in an
establishment but he will soon make those _over_ him like him so well
they will promote him to a chief-clerkship, a foremanship or a managership.
Once there he will make those _under_ him so fond of him that they
will work long and hard for him. Fat Men to the Top ¶ In this way the fat man of real brains
goes straight to the top while others look on and bewail the fact that they
do most of the actual work. They fail to recognize that the world always
pays the big salaries not for hand work but for head work, and not so
much for working yourself as for your ability to get others to work. The Popular Politician ¶ This capacity for managing, controlling
and winning others is what enables this type to succeed so well in politics.
The fat man knows how to get votes. He mixes with everybody, jokes
with everybody, remembers to ask how the children are–and pretty soon
he’s the head of his ward. Almost every big political boss is fat. Makes Others Work ¶ One man is but one man and at best can
do little more than a good man-size day of work. But a man who can induce
a dozen other man-machines to speed up and turn out a full
day’s work apiece doesn’t need to work his own hands. He serves his
employer more valuably as an overseer, foreman or supervisor. The Fat Salesman ¶ “A fat drummer” is such a common phrase
that we would think our ears deceived us did anyone speak of a thin one.
Approach five people and say “A traveling salesman,” each will tell you
that the picture this conjures in his imagination is of a fat, round,
roly-poly, good natured, pretty clever man whom everybody likes. For the fat men are “born salesmen” and they
make up a large percentage of that profession. Salesmanship requires
mentality plus a pleasing personality. The fat man qualifies easily
in the matter of personality. Then he makes little or much money from salesmanship,
according to his mental capacity. The Drummers’ Funny Stories ¶ You will note that the conversation of
fat people is well sprinkled with funny stories. They enjoy a good joke
better than any other type, for a reason which will become more and more
apparent to you. ¶ That salesmen are popularly supposed to
regale each customer with yarns till he gasps for breath and to get
his signature on the dotted line while he is in that weakened condition,
is more or less of a myth. It originated from the fact that most salesmen
are fat and that fat people tell stories well. Jokes at Fat Men’s Expense ¶ “Look at Fatty,” “get a truck,” and other
jibes greet the fat man on every hand. He knows he can not proceed a
block without being the butt of several jokes, but he listens to them all
with an amiability surprising to other types. And this good nature
is so apparent that even those who make sport of him are thinking to
themselves: “I believe I’d like that man.” The Fat Man’s Habits ¶ “Never hurry and never worry” are the unconscious
standards underlying many of the reactions of this type. If you
will compile a list of the habits of any fat person you will find that
they are mostly the outgrowths of one or both of these motives. Won’t Speed Up ¶ You would have a hard time getting an Alimentive
to follow out any protracted line of action calling for strenuosity,
speed or high tension. He will get as much done as the strenuous
man when their mentalities are equal–and often more. The
fat person keeps going in a straight line, with uniform and uninterrupted
effort, and does not have the blow-outs common to more fidgety people.
But hard, fast labor is not in his line. Loves Comedy ¶ All forms of mental depression are foreign
to fat people as long as they are in normal health. We have known a
fat husband and wife to be ejected for rent and spend the evening at
the movies laughing like four-year-olds at Charlie Chaplin or a Mack
Sennett comedy. You have sometimes seen fat people whose financial
condition was pretty serious and wondered how they could be so cheerful. Inclined to Indolence ¶ Fat people’s habits, being built around
their points of strength and weakness, are necessarily of two kinds–the
desirable and the undesirable. The worst habits of this type are those inevitable
to the ease-loving and the immature-minded. Indolence is one of his most undesirable traits
and costs the Alimentive dear. In this country where energy, push and lightning-like
efficiency are at a premium only the fat man of brains can hope
to keep up. The inertia caused by his digestive processes
is so great that it is almost insurmountable. The heavy, lazy feeling
you have after a large meal is with the fat man interminably because
his organism is constantly in the process of digesting large amounts
of food. Likes Warm Rooms ¶ Love of comfort–especially such things
as warm rooms and soft beds–is so deeply imbedded in the fiber of
this type that he has ever to face a fight with himself which the rest
of us do not encounter. This sometimes leads the excessively corpulent
person to relax into laziness and slovenliness. An obese individual sometimes
surprises us, however, by his ambition and immaculateness. But such a man or woman almost always combines
decided mental tendencies with his alimentiveness. Enjoys Doing Favors ¶ The habits which endear the fat person
to everyone and make us forget his faults are his never-failing hospitality,
kindness when you are in trouble, his calming air of contentment, his
tact, good nature and the real pleasure he seems to experience when
doing you a favor. His worst faults wreak upon him far greater
penalties than fall upon those who associate with him, something that
can not be said of the faults of some other types. Likes Melody ¶ Simple, natural music is a favorite with
fat people. Love songs, rollicking tunes and those full of melody
are most popular with them. An easy-to-learn, easy-to-sing song is the one
a fat man chooses when he names the next selection. They like ragtime, jazz and music with a swing
to it. Music the world over is most popular with fat races. The world’s
greatest singers and most of its famous musicians have been fat
or at least decidedly plump. Goes to the Cabaret ¶ The fat person will wiggle his toes, tap
his fingers, swing his fork and nod his head by the hour with a rumbling
jazz orchestra. When the Alimentive is combined with some
other type he will also enjoy other kinds of music but the pure Alimentive
cares most for primal tunes and melodies. Likes a Girly-Show ¶ A pretty-girl show makes a hit with fat
women as well as with fat men. Drop into the “Passing Show” and note how
many fat people are in the audience. Drop into a theater the next night
where a tragedy is being enacted and see how few fat ones are there. The One Made Sport Of ¶ Fat people enjoy helping out the players,
if the opportunity offers. All show people know this. When one of those tricks is to be played from
the foot-lights upon a member of the audience the girl who does it
is always careful to select that circular gentleman down front. Let her
try to mix up confetti or a toy balloon with a tall skinny man and the
police would get a hurry call! When we describe the bony type you will note
how very different he is from our friend the fat man. A Movie Fan ¶ “The fat man’s theater” would be a fitting
name for the movie houses of the country. Not that the fat man is the
only type patronizing the cinema. The movies cover in one evening so
many different kinds of human interests–news, cartoons, features and comedy–that
every type finds upon the screen something to interest him. But if you will do what we have done–stand
at the doorway of the leading movie theaters of your city any evening
and keep a record of the types that enter you will find the plump are
as numerous as all the others combined. Easy Entertainment ¶ The reason for this is plain to all who
are acquainted with Human Analysis: the fat man wants everything the
easiest possible way and the movie fulfils this requirement more fully
than any other theatrical entertainment. He can drop in when he feels
like it and there is no waiting for the show to start, for one thing. This is a decided advantage to him, for fat
people do not like to depend upon themselves for entertainment. The Babies of the Race ¶ The first stage in biological evolution
was the stage in which the alimentary apparatus was developed. To assimilate
nutriment was the first function of all life and is so still,
since it is the principal requirement for self-preservation. Being the first and most elemental of our
five physiological systems the Alimentive–when it overtops the others–produces
a more elemental, infantile nature. The pure Alimentive has
rightly been called “the baby of the race.” This accounts for many of the
characteristics of the extremely fat person, including the fact that
it is difficult for him to amuse himself. He of all types likes most to be amused and
very simple toys and activities are sufficient to do it. Loves the Circus ¶ A serious drama or “problem play” usually
bores him but he seldom misses a circus. The fat person expresses his immaturity also
in that he likes to be petted, made over and looked after. ¶ Like the infant he demands food first.
Almost the only time a fat man loses his temper is when he has been deprived
of his food. The next demand on his list is sleep, another characteristic
of the immature. Give a fat man “three squares” a day and plenty
of sleep in a comfortable bed, and he will walk off with
the prize for good humor three hundred and sixty-five days in the year.
Next to sleep he demands warm clothing in winter and steam heat when
the wintry winds blow. Fat People at the Beach ¶ If it were not for the exertion required
in getting to and from the beaches, dressing and undressing, and the
momentary coldness of the water, many more Alimentives would go to the
beaches in Summer than do. Not Strenuous ¶ Anything, to be popular with the Alimentive,
must be easy to get, easy to do, easy to get away from, easy to drop
if he feels like it. Anything requiring the expenditure of great energy,
even though it promises pleasure when achieved, is usually passed
over by the fat people. The Art of Getting Out Of It ¶ “Let George do it” is another bit of slang
invented by this type. He seldom does anything he really hates to do.
He is so likable he either induces you to let him out of it or gets somebody
to do it for him. He just naturally avoids everything that is intense,
difficult or strenuous. The Peaceable Type ¶ If an unpleasant situation of a personal
or social nature arises–a quarrel, a misunderstanding or any kind of
disagreement–the fat man will try to get himself out of it without
a discussion. Except when they have square faces (in which
case they are not pure Alimentives), extremely fat people do not
mix up in neighborhood, family, church, club or political quarrels.
It is too much trouble, for one thing, and for another it is opposed to
his peaceable, untensed nature. Avoids Expensive Quarrels ¶ The fat man has his eye on personal advantages
and promotions and he knows that quarrels are expensive, not alone
in the chances they lose him, but in nerve force and peace of mind. The fat man knows instinctively that peace
times are the most profitable times and though he is not for “peace at any
price” so far as the country is concerned, he certainly is much
inclined that way where he is personally concerned. You will be amused
to notice how this peace-loving quality increases as one’s weight
increases. The more fat any individual is the more is he inclined
to get what he wants without hostility. The Real Thing ¶ The favorite “good time” of the Alimentive
is one where there are plenty of refreshments. A dinner invitation
always makes a hit with him, but beware that you do not lure a fat person
into your home and give him a tea-with-lemon wisp where he expected a
full meal! Always Ready for Food ¶ Substantial viands can be served to him
any hour of the day or night with the certainty of pleasing him. He loves
a banquet, _provided he is not expected to make a speech_. The fat man
has a harder time than any other listening to long speeches. The fashion of trying to mix the two most
opposite extremes–food and ideas–and expecting them to go down, was
due to our misunderstanding of the real nature of human beings. It is rapidly
going out, as must every fashion which fails to take the human instincts
into account. Avoids Sports ¶ No prizes lure a fat man into strenuous
physical exercise or violent sports. Although we have witnessed numerous
state, national and international tennis, polo, rowing, sprinting,
hurdling and swimming contests, we have seen not one player who
was fat enough to be included in the pure Alimentive type. The grand-stands, bleachers and touring cars
at these contests contained a generous number of fat people, but their
conversation indicated that they were present more from personal interest
in some contestant than in the game itself. The nearest a fat man usually comes to taking
strenuous exercise is to drive in an open car. The more easeful that
car the better he likes it. He avoids long walks as he would the plague,
and catches a street car for a two-block trip. The Personal Element ¶ Due to his immaturity, the fat person gives
little thought to anything save those things which affect him personally. The calm exterior, unruffled countenance and
air of deliberation he sometimes wears, and which have occasionally
passed for “judicial” qualities, are largely the results of the
fact that the Alimentive refuses to get stirred up over anything that
does not concern him personally. This personal element will be found to dominate
the activities, conversation and interests of the Alimentive.
For him to like a thing or buy a thing it must come pretty near being
something he can eat, wear, live in or otherwise personally enjoy. He
confines himself to the concrete and tangible. But most of all he
confines himself to things out of which he gets something for himself. Reading ¶ The fat man is no reader but when he does
read it is nearly always something funny, simple or sentimental. In
newspapers he reads the “funnies.” Magazine stories, if short and
full of sentiment, attract him. He seldom reads an editorial and is not
a book worm. The newspaper furnishes practically all of the fat man’s
reading. He seldom owns a library unless he is very rich, and then it
is usually for “show.” Avoids Book Stores ¶ In making the investigations for this course,
we interviewed many clerks in the bookstores of leading cities
throughout the United States. Without exception they stated that
few extremely fat people patronized them. “I have been in this store
seventeen years and I have never sold a book to a two hundred and fifty
pounder,” one dealer told us. All this is due to the fact with which
we started this chapter–that the fat man is built around his stomach–and
stomachs do not read! Naturally Realistic ¶ The fat man has the child’s natural innocence
and ignorance of subtle and elusive things. He has the same interest
in things and people as does the child; the child’s indifference to
books, lectures, schools and everything abstract. Physical Assets ¶ “I believe I could digest nails!” exclaimed
a fat friend of ours recently. This perfect nutritive system constitutes
the greatest physical superiority of the Alimentive. So
highly developed is his whole stomach department that everything “agrees”
with him. And everything tends to make him fat. As Irvin Cobb recently said: “It isn’t true
that one can’t have his cake and eat it, too, for the fat man eats his
and keeps it–all.” Physical Liabilities ¶ A tendency to over-eat results naturally
from the highly developed eating and digesting system of this type but
this in turn overtaxes all the vital organs, as stated before. Also,
the fat man’s aversion to exercise reduces his physical efficiency. The pure Alimentive and the alimentively-inclined
should learn their normal weight and then keep within it if they
desire long lives. Social Assets ¶ Sweetness of disposition is one of the
most valuable of all human characteristics. Fat people possess it more
often and more unchangingly than any other type. Other social assets of
this type are amenableness, affability, hospitality and approachableness. Social Liabilities ¶ Gaining his ends by flattery, cajolery,
and various more or less innocent little deceptions are the only social
handicaps of this type. Emotional Assets ¶ His unfailing optimism is the most marked
emotional quality of this type. Nothing can be so dark that the fat
person doesn’t find a silver edge somewhere. So in disaster we always send
for our fat friends. In the presence of an amply-proportioned individual
everything looks brighter. Hope springs eternal in human breasts
but the springs are stronger in the plump folks than in the rest
of us. Money spending is also a marked feature of
the fat man. His emotions are out-going, never “in-growing.” A stingy fat
man is unknown. Emotional Liabilities ¶ A tendency to become spoiled, to pout,
and to take out his resentments in babyish ways are the emotional weaknesses
of this type. These, as you will note, are the natural reactions of childhood,
from which he never fully emerges. Business Assets ¶ The ability to make people like him is
the greatest business and professional asset of this type, and one every
other type might well emulate. One average-minded fat man near the
door of a business establishment will make more customers in
a month by his geniality, joviality and sociableness than a dozen brilliant
thinkers will in a year. Every business that deals directly with
the public should have at least one fat person in it. Business Liabilities ¶ A habit of evading responsibility and of
“getting out from under” constitutes the inclination most harmful to
the business or professional ambitions of this type. Again it is the child
in him trying to escape the task set for it and at the same time to
avoid punishment. Domestic Strength ¶ Love of home is a distinguishing domestic
trait of all fat people. The fat man’s provision for his family is usually
as complete as his circumstances will permit and he often stretches
it a point. As parents fat men and women are almost too
easy-going for their own future happiness, for they “spoil” their children.
But they are more loved by their children than any other type.
Being so nearly children themselves they make equals of their children,
enter into their games and live their lives with them. Domestic Weakness ¶ Dependence on others, the tendency of allowing
one’s self to be supported by brothers or sisters or wife,
is the chief domestic weakness of fat people. They should begin early in
life to depend upon themselves and make it a practice to carry
their share of family responsibilities. Should Aim At ¶ Developing more of his mental powers with
a view to using his head to lessen the manual work he so dislikes, and
cultivating an interest in the more mature side of the world in which
he lives should be two of the aims of all extremely fat people. Should Avoid ¶ “Letting down,” soft snaps and temptations
to evade responsibility should be avoided by the fat. Elbert Hubbard
said, “Blessed is the man who is not looking for a soft snap, for he
is the only one who shall find it.” This explains why the fat man, unless
brainy, seldom lands one. Strongest Points ¶ Optimism, hospitality and harmony are the
strongest points in the fat man’s nature. Upon them many a man has built
a successful life. Without them no individual of any type can hope to
be happy. His popularity and all-around compatibility
give the fat man advantages over other types which fairly compensate for
the weak cogs in his machinery. Weakest Points ¶ Self-indulgence of all kinds, over-eating,
over-sleeping, under-exercising and the evasion of responsibilities
are the weakest points of this type. Despite his many strong
points his life is often wrecked on these rocks. He so constantly tends
to taking the easy way out. Day by day he gives up chances for ultimate
success for the baubles of immediate ease. He is the most likable of all the types but
his indolence sometimes strains even the love of his family to the
breaking point. How to Deal with this Type Socially ¶ Feed him, give him comfortable chairs–the
largest you have–and don’t drag him into long discussions of any kind.
This is the recipe for winning the fat man when you meet him socially. And whatever you do, don’t tell him your troubles!
The fat man hates trouble, smothers his own, and you only make
him ill at ease when you regale him with yours. Don’t walk him any more than is absolutely
necessary. Let him go home early if he starts. He enjoys his sleep and
doesn’t like to have it interfered with. ¶ Make your conversation deal with concrete
personal things and events. Stay away from highbrow subjects. The best
places to eat and the best shows of the week are safe subjects to introduce
when with very fat people. How to Deal with this Type in Business ¶ Don’t give him hard manual tasks. If you
want this kind of work done get some one other than an extremely fat man
to do it. If you hire a fat man blame yourself for the result. Give your fat employee a chance to deal with
people in a not-too-serious way, but hold him strictly to the keeping
of his records, reports and working hours. If this fat person is a dealer,
a merchant or a tradesman keep him to his word. Start out by letting
him know you expect the delivery of just what he promises. Don’t let
him “jolly” you into relinquishing what is rightfully yours. And
keep in mind always that the fat person is usually good at heart. _Remember, the chief distinguishing marks
of the Alimentive in the order of their importance are ROUNDED OUTLINES,
IMMATURE FEATURES and DIMPLED HANDS. A person who has these is largely of
the Alimentive type, no matter what other types may be included in
his makeup._ [Illustration: 3 Thoracic the “thriller”] CHAPTER II The Thoracic Type “The Thriller” Individuals in whom the circulatory system
(heart, arteries and blood vessels) and the respiratory system (lungs,
nose and chest) are more highly developed than any other systems, have
been named the Thoracics. ¶ This name comes from the fact that the
heart and lungs (which constitute the most important organs of these
two closely-allied systems) are housed in the thorax–that little
room made by your ribs for the protection of these vital organs. Physical Resilience ¶ A general elasticity of structure, a suggestion
of sinews and physical resilience characterizes this type. The Florid-Faced, High-Chested Individual ¶ What is known as a “red face,” when accompanied
by a high chest, always signifies large thoracic tendencies.
The high color which in an adult comes and goes is a sure indication
of a well developed circulatory system, since high color is caused
by the rapid pumping of blood to the tiny blood vessels of the face. People with little blood, weak hearts or deficient
circulation are not florid and must be much overheated or excited
to show vivid color in their cheeks. Betray Their Feelings ¶ On the other hand, the slightest displeasure,
enjoyment, surprise or exertion brings the blood rushing to the face
and neck of him who has a large, well-developed blood-system. How many
times you have heard such a one say: “I am so embarrassed! I flush at
every little thing! How I envy the rest of you who come in from a long walk
looking so cool!” The Man of Great Chest Expansion ¶ The largest part of this man’s body is
around the chest. (See Chart 3) His chest is high for the reason that he has
larger lungs than the average. Advantages of a High Chest ¶ The man of unusual chest-expansion has
one great physical asset. The person who breathes deeply has a decided advantage
over the man who breathes deficiently. The lungs form the bellows
or air-supply for the body’s engine, the heart, and with a deficient
supply of air the heart does deficient work. Efficient breathing is
easy only to the man of large lungs, and only the high chested have
large lungs. Long-Waisted People ¶ A long waist is another thoracic sign,
for it is a natural result of the extra house-room required by the large
lungs and heart. It is easily detected in both men and women. (See Chart
3) If you are a close observer you have noticed
that some people appear to have a waist line much lower than others;
that the belt line dividing the upper part of the body from the lower
is proportionately much nearer the floor in some than in others of the same
height. Passing of the “Wasp Waist” ¶ The “straight-up-and-down” lines of today’s
woman and the slimpsy shoulder-to-heel garments she wears have obliterated
her waistline, but you will recall how differently the old “wasp
waist” fashions of a score of years ago betrayed the secrets of the short
and long waist. The eighteen-inch belt, of which we were so
falsely proud in 1900, told unmistakable facts about milady’s thoracic
development. Belts vs. Suspenders ¶ As the tell-tale belt disappeared from
woman’s wardrobe it appeared in man’s, and now betrays the location of his
waist with an exactness of which the old-fashioned suspenders were never
guilty. To Test Yourself ¶ If you are a man and have difficulty in
getting ready-made coats long enough for you this is certain proof that
you have decided thoracic tendencies. If you are a woman who has to
forego many a pretty gown because it is not long enough in the waist,
the same is true of you. In women this long waist and high chest give
the appearance of small hips and of shoulders a little broader than
the average; in men it gives that straight, soldier-like bearing which
makes this type of man admired and gazed after as he strides down the street. The Pure Thoracic Head ¶ A high head is a significant characteristic
of the typical Thoracic. (See Chart 4) The Anglo-Saxons tend to have
this head and, more than any other races, exhibit thoracic qualities as
racial characteristics. This is considered the handsomest head known.
Certainly it lends the appearance of nobility and intelligence. It
is not wide, looked at from the front or back, but inclines to be slightly
narrower for its height than the Alimentive head. The Kite-Shaped Face ¶ A face widest through the cheek bones and
tapering slightly up the sides of the forehead and downward to the
jaw bones is the face of the pure Thoracic. (See Chart 4) This must not
be mistaken for the pointed chin nor the pointed head, but is merely a
sloping of the face upward and downward from the cheek bones as a result
of the unusual width of the nose section. (See Chart 4) His Well-Developed Nose ¶ The nose section is also high and wide
because the typical Thoracic has a nose that is well developed. This is
shown not only by its length but by its high bridge. [Illustration: 4 Typical Thoracic face] The cause for the width and length of this
section is obvious. The nose constitutes the entrance and exit departments
of the breathing system. Large lung capacity necessitates a
large chamber for the intake and expulsion of air. Signs of Good Lungs ¶ Whenever you see a man whose face is wide
through the cheek bones–with a long, high-bridged open-nostrilled
nose–you see a man of good lung capacity and of quick physical energy.
When you see any one with pinched nostrils, a face that is narrow
through the cheek bones and a low or “sway-back” nose, you see a man whose
lung capacity is deficient. Such a person invariably expends
his physical energy more slowly. Freckles, being due to the same causes as
red hair and high color, are further indications of thoracic tendencies,
though you may belong to this type with or without them. The Typical Thoracic Hand ¶ The pointed hand is the hand of the pure
Thoracic. (See Chart 4) Note the extreme length of the second finger and
the pointed effect of this hand when all the fingers are laid together.
Any person with a pointed hand such as this has good thoracic development
whether it occupies first place in his makeup or not. The fingers of the Thoracic are also inclined
to be more thin-skinned than those of other types. One may be predominantly Thoracic without
these elements but they are indications of the extreme Thoracic type.
Naturally the hand of the extreme Thoracic is more pink than the average. The Beautiful Foot ¶ The Thoracic tends to have more narrow,
high-arched feet than other types. As a result this type makes the majority
of the beautifully shod. The Man of Energetic Movements ¶ A hair-trigger nimbleness goes with this
type. He is always “poised ready to strike.” All Thoracics use their hands, arms, wrists,
limbs and feet alertly and energetically. They open doors, handle implements
and all kinds of hand instruments with little blundering. Also their
movements are more graceful than those of other types. The Thoracic Walk ¶ “The springy step” must have been invented
to describe the walk of the Thoracic. No matter how hurried, his walk
has more grace than the walk of other types. He does not stumble; and it
is seldom that a Thoracic steps on the train of his partner’s gown. The Graceful Sitter ¶ The way you sit tells a great deal about
your nature. One of the first secrets it betrays is whether you are by nature
graceful or ungainly. The person who sits gracefully, who seems
to drape himself becomingly upon a chair and to arise from it with ease
is usually a Thoracic. Their excess of energy sometimes gives them
the appearance of “fidgeting,” but it is an easy, graceful fidget
and not as disturbing as that of other types. Keen Eye and Ear Senses ¶ Quick eyes and keen ears are characteristic
of the Thoracics. The millions of stimuli–the sounds, sights and
smells impinging every waking moment upon the human consciousness–affect
him more quickly and more intensely than any other type. The acuteness
of all our senses depends, to a far greater extent than we have
hitherto supposed, upon proper heart and lung action. Take long, deep breaths for five minutes in
the open air while walking rapidly enough to make your heart pound, and
see how much keener your senses are at the end of that time. The Thoracic is chronically in this condition
because his heart and lungs are going at top speed habitually and
naturally all his life. Susceptible to Heat ¶ Because bodily temperature varies according
to the amount of blood and the rapidity of its circulation, this type
is always warmer than others. He is extremely susceptible to heat, suffers
keenly in warm rooms or warm weather and wears fewer wraps in winter.
The majority of bathers at the beaches in summer are largely of this
type. The High-Strung ¶ Nerves as taut as a violin string–due
to his acute physical senses and his thin, sensitive skin–plus his instantaneous
quickness make the Thoracic what is known as “high-strung.” The Most Temperamental ¶ Because he is keyed to high C by nature,
the Thoracic has more of that quality called temperament than any other
type. The wag who said that “temperament was mostly
temper” might have reversed it and still have been right. For
temper is largely a matter of temperament. Since the Thoracics have more
“temperament” it follows naturally that they have more temper, or rather
that they show it oftener, just as they show their delightful
qualities oftener. A Continuous Performance ¶ This type, consciously and unconsciously,
is a “continuous performance.” He is showing you something
of himself every moment and if you are interested in human nature, as your
reading of this book suggests, you are going to find him a fascinating
subject. He is expressing his feelings with more or less
abandon all the time and he is likely to express as many as a dozen different
ones in as many moments. The Quick Temper ¶ “Flying off the handle,” and “going up
in the air” are phrases originally inspired by our dear, delightful
friends, the Thoracics. Other types do these more or less temperamental
things but they do not do them as frequently nor on as short notice
as this type. The Human Firefly ¶ A fiery nature is part and parcel of the
Thoracic’s makeup. But did you ever see a fiery-natured man who didn’t
have lots of warm friends! It is the grouch–in whom the fire starts
slowly and smoulders indefinitely–that nobody likes. But the man
who flares up, flames for a moment and is calm the next never lacks for
companions or devotees. The Red-Haired ¶ One may belong to the Thoracic type whether
his hair is blonde or brunette or any of the shades between, but
it is an interesting fact that most of the red-haired are largely of
this type. “He didn’t have red hair for nothing” is a famous phrase that
has been applied to the red-haired, quick-tempered Thoracic for generations. You will be interested to note that this high
color and high chest are distinctly noticeable in most of the red-haired
people you know–certain proof that they approximate this type. As you walk down the street tomorrow look
at the people ahead of you and when you find a “red-head” notice how much
more red his neck is than the necks of the people walking beside him.
This flushed skin almost always accompanies red hair, showing that
most red-haired people belong to this type. The “Flash in the Pan” ¶ The red-haired man’s temper usually expends
itself instantly. His red-hot fieriness is over in a moment. But
for every enemy he has two friends–friends who like his flame, even
though in constant danger from it themselves. Whereas the Alimentive avoids you if he disagrees
with you, the Thoracic likes to tell you in a few hot words just
what he thinks of you. But the chances are that he will be so completely
over it by lunch time that he will invite you out with him. Desire for Approbation ¶ To be admired and a wee bit envied are
desires dear to the heart of this type. Everybody, to a greater or lesser
degree, desires these things, but to no other type do they mean
so much as to this one. We know this because no other type, in any such
numbers, takes the trouble or makes the sacrifices necessary to bring
them about. Acts Indicate Desires ¶ The ego of every individual craves approval
but the majority of the other types craves something else more–the
particular something in each case depending upon the type to which the
individual belongs. You can always tell what any individual WANTS
MOST by what he DOES. The man who _thinks_ he wants a thing or wishes
he wanted it talks about getting it, envies those who have it and _plans_
to start doing something about it. But the man who really
WANTS a thing GOES AFTER it, sacrifices his leisure, his pleasures and
sometimes love itself–and GETS it. Shines in Public Life ¶ The lime-light appeals more to this type
than to others because it goes further toward gratifying his desire
for approbation. So while other men and women are dreaming of fame the
Thoracic practises, ploughs and pleads his way to it. The personal adulation of friends and of the
multitude is the breath of life to him. Extremes of this type consider
no self-denial too great a price to pay for it. Many on the Stage ¶ The stage in all its forms is as natural
a field to the Thoracic as salesmanship is to the Alimentive. The pleas
of fond papas and fearsome mamas are usually ineffective with this type
of boy or girl when he sets his heart on a career before the foot-lights
or in the movies. Whether they achieve it or not will depend
on other, and chiefly mental, traits in each individual’s makeup, but the
yearning for it in some form is always there. So the managers’ waiting
rooms are always crowded with people of this type. It is this intensity
of desire which has goaded and inspired most stage artists on to success
in their chosen fields. “Put Yourself in His Place” ¶ To be able to put one’s self in the role
of another, to feel as he feels; to be so keenly sensitive to his situation
and psychology that one almost becomes that person for the time
being, is the heart and soul of acting. The Thoracic has this sensitiveness naturally.
After long study and acquaintance you may be able to put yourself
in the place of a few friends. The Thoracic does this instantly
and automatically. Tendency, Not Toil, Makes Fame ¶ Those who have succeeded to fame in any
given line are wont to proclaim, “Hard work is the secret of success,”
and to take great credit unto themselves for the labor they have expended
on their own. It is true of course that all success entails
hard work. But the man or woman sufficiently gifted to rise to the heights
gets from that gift such a strong inward urge towards its expression
that what he does in that direction is not work to him. The long
hours, concentration and study devoted to it are more pleasurable than
painful to him. He chooses such activities voluntarily. Nature the Real Artist ¶ Nothing can rightly be called work which
one does out of sheer preference. Work never made an actress and
work never made a singer where innate talent for these arts was lacking.
Nature, the true maker of every famous name, bestows ninety per cent
and man, if he hustles, can provide the other very necessary ten.
But his sense of humor if not his sense of justice should be sufficient
to prevent his trying to rob the Almighty of His due. Success for All ¶ Every individual who is not feeble-minded
can be a success at something in this big world. Every normal-minded
individual is able to create, invent, improve, organize, build or
market some of the myriads of things the world is crying for. But he
will succeed at only those things in which his physiological and psychological
mechanisms perform their functions easily and naturally. Why We Work ¶ Man is, by inclination, very little of
a worker. He is, first, a wanter–a bundle of instincts; second, a feeler–a
bundle of emotions; last and least, he is a thinker. What real
work he does is done not because he likes it but because it serves
one of these first two bundles of instincts. When the desire for leisure is stronger than
the other urges, leisure wins. But in all ambitious men and women the
desire for other things outweighs the leisure-urge. Ambition and Type ¶ Now what is it that causes some to have
ambition and others to lack it? Your ambitions take the form determined by
your predominating physiological system. For instance, in every
great singer the Thoracic has been present either as the first or second
element. The effect of the physical upon our talents
is no more marked anywhere than here. For it is his unusual lung power,
his high chest, the sounding boards in his nose section and his
superior vocal cords that make the real foundation of every singer’s
fame. These physiological conditions are found in extreme degree only
in persons of thoracic tendencies. It was the great lung-power of Caruso that
made him a great singer. It was his remarkable heart-power that brought
him through an illness in February, 1921, when every newspaper in the
world carried on its front page the positive statement that he could
not live another day. That he lived for six months afterward was due chiefly
to his remarkable heart. The nature resulting from a large heart and
large lungs is one distinctly different from all others–in short,
the Thoracic nature. The Best Dressed ¶ The best dressed man and the best dressed
woman in your town belong predominantly to this type. This is no accident.
The Thoracics, being possessed of acute eye senses, are more sensitive
to color and line than any other type. These are the foundations
of “style” and artistic grooming. Clothes Can Unmake the Man ¶ Being desirous of the approval of others
and realizing that though clothes do not make the man they can unmake
him, this type looks to his laurels on this point. Because clothes determine the first impressions
we make upon strangers and because that impression is difficult to
change, clothes are of vast importance in this maze of human relationships. The Thoracic is more sensitive to the attitude
of others because their attitude is more vital to his self-expression.
He senses from childhood the bearing that clothes have for or against
him in the opinion of others and how they can aid him to express
his personality. The Glass of Fashion ¶ The Thoracic therefore often becomes “the
glass of fashion and the mold of form.” His consciousness of himself
is so keen that, even when alone, he prefers those things in dress which
are at once fine, fancy and fashionable. Some types are indifferent to clothes, some
ignorant of clothes and some defiant in their clothes but the Thoracic
always has a keen sense of fitness in the matter of apparel. Distinction in Dress ¶ The distinctive dresser is one who essays
the extremely fashionable, the “last moment” touch. He is always a step
or two ahead of the times. His ties, handbags, handkerchiefs and stick
pins are “up to the minute.” Such a man or woman invariably has a large
thoracic development and is well repaid by the public for his pains. Dress the Universal Language ¶ The public looks more eagerly than we suppose
to changes in styles and fads. It gives, in spite of itself, instantaneous
admiration of a sort to those who follow the dictates of fashion.
This being one of the quickest roads to adulation, it is often utilized
by this type. The Newest in Hairdressing ¶ The latest thing in coiffures is always
known by the Thoracic woman. And because she is, more often than any other
type, a beautiful woman she can wear her hair in almost any style
and find it becoming. So when puffs were the thing this type of
woman not only wore puffs but the most extreme and numerous puffs. When
the “sticking-to-the-face” style was in vogue she bought much bandoline
and essayed the sleekest and shiniest head of all. When the ear-bun
raged she changed those same paper-like curls over night into veritable
young sofa cushions. Always on “Dress Parade” ¶ With intent to keep the spotlight on himself
the Thoracic is always on dress parade. He is vividly aware of himself;
he knows what kind of picture he is making. He is seldom “self-conscious,”
in the sense of being timid. When he does happen to be timid
he suffers, by reason of his greater desire for approval, more acutely
than any other type. Affectability His Keynote ¶ Instantaneous reaction to stimuli–with
all the reflex actions resulting therefrom–constitutes the keynote
of this type. This makes an individual who is physiologically and psychologically
affectable. Because life is full of all kinds of stimuli,
acting during every waking moment upon every sense in the organism, any
person who is high strung finds himself in the midst of what might be
called “nerve-bedlam.” Gets the Most Out of Everything ¶ Because of this same highly sensitized
makeup the Thoracic gets more sensations out of every incident than the
rest of us do. He experiences more joy in the space of a lifetime but also
more disappointment. The Human Violin ¶ For the same reason that the violin vibrates
to a greater number of sounds than the organ, the Thoracic is a more
vibrant individual than others. He is impelled to an expressiveness
of voice, manner and action that often looks like pretence to less impulsive
people. In other types it would be, but to the Thoracic it is so
natural and normal that he is often much surprised to hear that he has the
reputation of being “affected.” A Reputation for Flightiness ¶ This lightning-like liveliness of face,
body and voice, his quick replies and instantaneous reactions to everything
also cause him to be called “flighty.” The Quick Thinker ¶ We are prone to judge every one by ourselves.
People whose mental or physical senses are less “keyed-up,” less
sensitive, call the Thoracic “rattle-brained.” Usually such a man’s brain is not rattled
at all; it is working, as all brains do in response to the messages reaching
it, via the telegraph wires of the five senses. In the Thoracic these wires happen to be more
taut than in the other types. He gets sensations from sights, sounds,
tastes, touches and smells much more quickly than the rest of
us do. These messages are sent to the brain more rapidly and, since sensation
is responsible for much of our thinking, this man’s brain thinks a
little more speedily than that of other types. It does not necessarily think any better.
Often it does need slowing down. But compared to the thought-power of
some of the other types the Thoracic’s speed makes up for much of his
carelessness. He makes more mistakes in judgment than other types but
can “right-about-face” so quickly he usually remedies them while other
types are still trying to decide when to start. To hold himself back is the hardest lesson
for this type to learn. His Changeability ¶ This tendency to let himself go brings
the Thoracic a great deal of unhappiness and failure. He plunges so quickly
that he often fails to take into consideration the various elements
of the situation. His physical senses tell him a thing should
be done and rush him headlong into actions that he knows are ill-advised
the moment he has time to think them over. In turning around
and righting his mistakes he often hears himself called “changeable” and
“vacillating.” His “Batting Average” ¶ In this, as in other things, we have a
tendency toward smugness, shortsightedness and egotism. The man who
makes but one mistake a year because he makes but two decisions is wrong
fifty per cent of the time. Yet he self-satisfiedly considers himself
superior to the Thoracic because he has caught the latter in six “poor
deals within six months.” At the rate the average Thoracic acts this
would be about one mistake in a thousand–a much “better batting average”
than the other man’s. But because the confidence of others in our
stability is of prime importance to us all, this type or any one
inclined to definite thoracic tendencies should take pains to prevent this
impression from settling into the minds of his friends. Should Get Onto the Highway ¶ The greatest reason for striving toward
stability in action and more slowness in decision, however, is for his
own future’s sake. The man who is constantly making decisions and being compelled
to alter them gets nowhere. He may have the best engine and the
finest car in the world but if he runs first down this by-path, and then
that, he will make little progress on the main highway. Should Have an Aim ¶ An aim, a definite goal is essential to
the progress of any individual. It should be made with care and
in keeping with one’s personality, talents, training, education,
environment and experience, and having been made should be adhered to
with the determination which does not permit little things to interfere
with it. Eliminating Non-Essentials ¶ The big problem of individual success is
the problem of eliminating non-essentials–of “hewing to the line, letting
the chips fall where they may.” Most of the things that steal your
time, strength, money and energy are nothing but chips. If you pay too
much attention to them you will never hew out anything worth while. No Vain Regrets ¶ If you are a Thoracic don’t regret the
fact that you are not a one-decision-a-year man, but try to make fewer
and better decisions. Your quickness, if called into counsel, will
enable you to see from what instincts your mistakes habitually arise and
the direction in which most of them have pointed. And you will see this
with so much greater dispatch than the average person that you
will lose little time. You should begin today to analyze your most
common errors in judgment that you may guard against their recurrence. Always Slightly Thrilled ¶ Even when apparently composed the Thoracic
is always a wee bit thrilled. Everything he sees, hears, touches,
tastes or smells gives him such keen sensations that he lives momentarily
in some kind of adventure. He languishes in an unchanging environment
and finds monotony almost unbearable. Lights and Shadows ¶ “Never two minutes the same” fitly describes
this type. He passes rapidly from one vivid sensation to another
and expresses each one so completely that he is soon ready for the next.
He has fewer complexes than any other type because he does not inhibit
as much. The Uncorked Bottle ¶ The “lid” is always off of the Thoracic.
This being the case he suffers little from “mental congestion” though
he sometimes pays a high price for his self-expression. Everybody is Interesting ¶ Most of us are much more interesting than
the world suspects. But the world is not made up of mind readers. We keep
our most interesting thoughts and the most interesting side of
ourselves hidden away. Even your dearest friends are seldom given a peep
into the actual You. And this despite the fact that we all recognize
this as a deficiency in others. We bottle up ourselves and defy the world’s
cork-screws–all save the Thoracic. He allows his associates to see
much of what is passing in his mind all the time. Because we are all interested
in the real individual and not in masks this type usually is much
sought after. Not Secretive ¶ The Thoracic does not by preference cover
up; he does not by preference secrete; he does not, except when
necessary, keep his plans and ways dark. He is likely to tell not only
his family but his newest acquaintances just what he is planning to
do and how he expects to do it. The naturally secretive person who vaguely
refers to “a certain party” when he has occasion to speak of another is
the exact opposite of this type. His “Human Interest” ¶ We are all interested in the little comings
and goings of our friends. Upon this fact every magazine and
newspaper builds its “human interest” stories. We may be indifferent to
what the President of the United States is doing about international
relations but what he had for breakfast is mighty interesting. Few people
read inaugural addresses, significant though they often are to the world
and to the reader himself. But if the President would write
ten volumes on “Just How I Spend My Sundays,” it would be a “best seller.” Naturally Confidential ¶ Personal experiences, personal secrets
and personal preferences are subjects we are all interested in. These are
the very things with which the Thoracic regales his friends and about
which he is more frank and outspoken than any other type. He makes many
friends by his obvious openness and his capacity for seeing the interesting
details which others overlook. Charming Conversationalist ¶ Colorful, vivid words and phrases come
easily to the tongue of this type for he sees the unusual, the fascinating,
in everything. Since any one can make a thing interesting to others
if he is really interested in it himself, the Thoracic makes others see
and feel what he describes. He is therefore known as the most charming
conversationalist. Beautiful Voice ¶ The most beautiful voices belong to people
who are largely of this type. This is due, as we have said before,
to physiological causes. The high chest, sensitive vocal cords, capacious
sounding boards in the nose and roof of the mouth all tend to give the
voice of the Thoracic many nuances and accents never found in other types. His pleasing voice plus the vividness of his
expressions and his lack of reticence in giving the intimate and interesting
details are other traits which help to make the Thoracic a lively
companion. The Lure of Spontaneity ¶ The most beloved people in the world are
the spontaneous. We lead such drab lives ourselves and keep back so much,
we like to see a little Niagara of human emotion occasionally. The
Thoracic feels everything keenly. Life’s experiences make vivid records
on the sensitive plate of his mind. He puts them on the Victrola that
is himself and proceeds to run them off for your entertainment. Sometimes a “Bubbler” ¶ “A constant stream of talk” must have been
first said in describing this type. For while others are carefully
guarding their real feelings and thoughts the Thoracic goes merrily on
relieving himself of his. More sedate and somber types call the Thoracics
“bubblers” or “spouters” just for this reason. The Incessant Talker ¶ “That person’s talk gets on my nerves,”
is a remark often made by one of the staid, stiff types concerning the seldom
silent, extremely florid individual. So natural is this to the Thoracic
that he is entirely unconscious of the wearing effect he has on
other people. A Sense of Humor ¶ Seeing the funny side of everything is
a capacity which comes more naturally to this type than to others. This
is due to the psychological fact that nothing is truly humorous save what
is slightly “out of plumb.” Real humor lies in detecting and describing
that intangible quirk. No type has the sensitiveness essential to this
in any such degree as the Thoracic. Individuals of other types sometimes
possess a keen sense of humor. This trait is not confined to the Thoracic.
But it is a significant fact that almost every humorist
of note has had this type as the first or second element in his makeup. The Human Fireworks ¶ “He is a skyrocket,” or “she is a firefly,”
are phrases often used to describe that vivacious individual whose adeptness
at repartee puts the rest of the crowd in the background. These
people are always largely or purely Thoracic. They never belong predominately
to the fourth type. The next time you find such a person note
how his eyes flash, how his color comes and goes and the many indescribable
gradations of voice which make him the center of things. “He is always shooting sparks,” said a man
recently in describing a florid, high-chested friend. Never Dull Company ¶ His “line” may not interest you but the
Thoracic himself is usually interesting. He is an actual curiosity to
the quiet, inexpressive people who never can fathom how he manages to talk
so frankly and so fast. Such a person is seldom dull. He is everything
from a condiment to a cocktail and has the same effect on the average
group of more or less drab personalities. Lives in the Heights and Depths ¶ “Glad one moment and sad the next” is the
way the ticker would read if it could make a record of the inner feelings
of the average Thoracic. These feelings often come and go without his
having the least notion of what causes them. Ordinarily these unaccountable
moods are due to sensations reaching his subconscious mind,
of which no cognizance is taken by his conscious processes. Called “Intuitive” ¶ This ability to “get” things, to respond
quickly with his physical reactions while devoting his mental ones to
something else, has obtained for this type the reputation of possessing
more “intuition” than others. Source of “Hunches” ¶ That there is no such thing as intuition
in the old sense of getting a “hunch” from the outside is now agreed by
psychologists. The thing we have called intuition, they maintain, is not
due to irregular or supernatural causes but to our own normal
natural mental processes. The impression that he gets this knowledge
or suspicion from the outside is due, the scientists say, to the fact that
his thinking has proceeded at such lightning-like speed that he was unable
to watch the wheels go round. The only thing of which he is conscious
is the final result or sum at the bottom of the column called his
“hunch.” He is not aware of the addition and subtraction which his mind
went through to get it for him. Easily Excited ¶ “Off like a shot” is a term often applied
to the Thoracic. He is the most easily excited of all types but also
the most easily calmed. He recovers from every mood more quickly and
more completely than other types. Under the influence of emotion he often
does things for which he is sorry immediately afterward. On the Spur of the Moment ¶ This type usually does a thing quickly
or not at all. He is a gun that is always cocked. So he hits a great many
things in the course of a lifetime and leads the most exciting existence
of any type. Being able to get thrills out of the most commonplace
event because of seeing elements in it which others overlook, he finds
in everyday life more novelty than others ever see. The Adventurers ¶ Romance and adventure always interest this
type. He lives for thrills and novel reactions and usually spares no
pains or money to get them. A very slangy but very expressive term used
frequently by these people is, “I got a real kick out of that.” This craving for adventure, suspense and zest
often lures this type into speculation, gambling and various games of
chance. The danger in flying, deep-sea diving, auto-racing and similar fields
has a strong appeal for this type–so strong that practically every
man or woman who follows these professions is of this type. Tires of Sameness ¶ The Thoracic soon tires of the same suit,
the same gown, the same house, the same town and even the same girl.
He wrings the utmost out of each experience so quickly and so completely
that he is forever on the lookout for new worlds to conquer. Past experiences
are to him as so many lemons out of which he has taken all
the juice. He anticipates those of the future as so many more to be
utilized in the same way. Likes Responsive People ¶ We all like answers. We want to be assured
that what we have said or done has registered. The Thoracic is always
saying or doing something and can’t understand why other people are
so unresponsive. He is as responsive as a radio wire. Everything hits
the mark with him and he lets you know it. So, naturally, he enjoys
the same from others and considers those less expressive than himself
stiff, formal or dull. The kind of person the Thoracic likes best
is one sufficiently like himself to nod and smile and show that he
fully understands but who will not interrupt his stream of talk. People He Dislikes ¶ The stolid, indifferent or cold are people
the Thoracic comes very near disliking. Their evident self-complacency
and immobility are things he does not understand at all and with which
he has little patience. Such people seem to him to be cold, unfeeling,
almost dead. So he steers clear of them. It was surely a Thoracic who
first called these people “sticks.” But the reason for their acting
like sticks will be apparent in another chapter. His Pet Aversions ¶ Whereas the Alimentive avoids people he
does not care for, the Thoracic is inclined to betray his aversions.
He occasionally delights to put people he dislikes at a disadvantage
by his wit or satire. The stony individual who walks through life like
an Ionian pillar is a complete mystery to the Thoracic; and the
pillar returns the compliment. We do not like anything we do not understand
and we seldom understand anything that differs decidedly from ourselves. Thus we distrust and dislike foreigners, and
to a greater or lesser extent other families, people from other sections
of the country, etc. The Easterner and Westerner have a natural
distrust of each other; and the Civil War is not the only reason for the
incompatibility of Southerners and Northerners. So it is with individuals. Those who differ
too widely in type never understand each other. They have too little
of the chief thing that builds friendships–emotions in common. The Forgiving Man ¶ If you have once been a real friend of
a Thoracic and a quarrel comes between you, he may be ever so bitter and
biting in the moment of his anger but in most cases he will forgive you
eventually. Really Forgets Disagreements ¶ It is not as easy for other types to forgive;
they often refrain from attempting a reconciliation. But the Thoracic’s
forgiveness is not only spontaneous but genuine. The Alimentive bears no grudges because it
is too much trouble. The Thoracic finds it hard to maintain a grudge
because he gets over it just as he gets over everything else. His anger
oozes away or he wakes up some fine morning and finds, like the boy
recovering from the chickenpox, that he “simply hasn’t it any
more.” Diseases He is Most Susceptible To ¶ Acute diseases are the ones chiefly affecting
this type. Everything in his organism tends to suddenness and not to
sameness. Just as he is inclined to get into and out
of psychological experiences quickly, so he is inclined to sudden illnesses
and to sudden recuperations. A Thoracic seldom has any kind
of chronic ailment. If he acquires a superabundance of avoirdupois he
is in danger of apoplexy. The combination of extreme Thoracic and extreme
Alimentive tendencies is the cause of this disease. Likes Fancy Foods ¶ Variety and novelty in food are much enjoyed
by this type. The Alimentive likes lots of rich food but he
is not so desirous of varieties or freak dishes. But the Thoracic
specializes in them. You can not mention any kind of strange new
dish whose investigation won’t appeal to some one in the crowd, and
that person is always somewhat thoracic. It gives him another promise
of “newness.” Foreign dishes of all kinds depend for their
introduction into this country almost entirely upon these florid
patrons. According to the statements of restauranteurs this type says,
“I will try anything once.” Many-course dinners, if the food is good,
are especially popular with them. “The Trimmings” at Dinner ¶ Out-of-the-ordinary surroundings in which
to dine are always welcome to this type. The hangings, pictures, and
furniture mean much to him. Most people like music at meals but to the
Thoracic it is almost indispensable. He is so alive in every nerve,
so keyed-up and has such intense capacity for enjoyment of many things
simultaneously that he demands more than other types. An attentive
waiter who ministers to every movement and anticipates every wish
is also a favorite with the Thoracic when out for dinner. Sensitive to His Surroundings ¶ Colorful surroundings are more necessary
to the Thoracic than to other types. The ever-changing fashions in house
decorations are welcome innovations to him. He soon grows tired of
a thing regardless of how much he liked it to begin with. Take notice amongst your friends and you will
see that the girl who changes the furniture all around every few
weeks is invariably of this type. “It makes me feel that I have changed
my location and takes the place of a trip,” explained one girl not long
ago. Wants “Something Different” ¶ The exact color of hangings, wall-paper,
interior decorations and accessories are matters of vital import to
this type. Whereas the Alimentives demand comfort, the Thoracics
ask for “something different,” something that catches and holds the eye–that
makes an instantaneous impression upon the onlooker and gives him
one more thing by which to remember the personality of the one who lives
there. This type considers his room and home as a
part of himself and takes the pains with them which he bestows upon his
clothes. When He is Rich ¶ Wealth to the Thoracic means unlimited
opportunity for achieving the unusual in everything. His tastes are more
extravagant than those of other types. Uncommon works of art are usually
found in the homes of this type. The most extraordinary things from
the most extraordinary places are especial preferences with him. He carries out his desire for attention here
as in everything else and what he buys will serve that end directly
or indirectly. Fashion and “Flare” ¶ “Flare” aptly describes the quality which
the pure Thoracic desires in all that touches him and his personality.
It must have verve and “go” and distinctiveness. It must be “the latest”
and “the thing.” He is the last type of all to submit to wearing
last year’s suit, singing last year’s songs, or driving in a
last year’s model. Likes Dash ¶ The Thoracic wants everything he wears,
drives, lives in or owns to “get across,” to make an impression. The fat
man loves comfort above all else, but the florid man loves distinction. He does not demand such easy-to-wear garments
as the fat man. On the contrary, he will undergo extreme discomfort
if it gives him a distinctive appearance. He wants his house
to be elegant, the grounds “different,” the view unusual. Has Color Sense ¶ Whereas the fat man when furnishing a home
devotes his attention to soft beds, steam heat and plenty of cushioned
divans, the Thoracic thinks of the chandeliers, the unusual chairs,
the pretty front doorstep, the landscape gardening and the
color schemes. When He is in Moderate Circumstances ¶ When only well to do this type will be
found to have carried out furnishings and decorations with the taste
worthy of much larger purses. When merely well to do he wears the very best
clothes he can possibly afford, and often a good deal better. This
type does not purpose to be outwitted by life. He tries always to put
up a good showing. When He is Poor ¶ The Thoracic is seldom poor. He has so
much personality, ginger and go of the sort that is required in the world
of today that he usually has a good position. He may not like the position.
But in spite of the fact that he finds it harder to tolerate disagreeable
things than any other type, he will endure it for he knows that
the rewards he is after can not be had by the down-and-outer. The natural and normal vanity of the Thoracic
stands him in hand here more than in almost any other place in life. The World Entertained by Them ¶ Behind every row of foot-lights you will
find more people of this type than any other. The Alimentive manages the
world but the Thoracic entertains it. He comprises more of the dancers, actors,
operatic stars and general entertainers than any other two types combined.
In everything save acrobatics and oratory he holds the platform
laurels. As already pointed out, his adaptability,
spontaneity and love of approval are responsible for this. His Fastidious Habits ¶ The Thoracic is the most fastidious of
all the types. His thin skin and sensitive nerves make him more conscious
of roughness and slovenliness than others. The result is that
he is what is called “more particular” about his person than are other
types. The fat man often wears an old pair of shoes long past their
usefulness, but the florid man thinks more of the impression he creates
than of his own personal comfort, and will wear the shiniest of patent
leathers on the hottest day if they are the best match for his suit. Likes All Music ¶ Every kind of music is enjoyed by the pure
Thoracic because he experiences so many moods. Entertainment He Prefers ¶ Social affairs of an exclusive order where
he wears his “best bib and tucker” and everybody else does the same,
are amongst the favorite diversions of this type. He makes a favorable
impression under such conditions and is well aware of it. Other reasons for this preference are his
brilliant conversational powers, his charm and his enjoyment of other
people and their view-points. The Thoracic is also exceedingly
fond of dancing. Enjoys Vaudeville ¶ The average Thoracic enjoys vaudeville,
Follies, revues, etc., because they are full of quick changes of program.
He enjoys, as does every type, certain kinds of movies, but he constitutes
no such percentage of the movie-going audience as some other types. Reading ¶ Books and stories that are romantic, adventurous,
and different are the favorites of this type. Detective stories
are often in high favor with him also. Physical Assets ¶ The physical advantages of this type are
his quick energy–based on his wonderful breathing system–and the rich,
rapid-flowing blood, produced by his wonderful heart system. He is noted for his ability to get “his second
wind” and has remarkable capacity for rising to sudden physical emergencies. Physical Liabilities ¶ A tendency to over-excitement and the consequent
running down of his batteries is a physical pitfall often fatal
to this type. Favorite Sports ¶ Hurdling, sprinting, tennis and all sports
requiring short, intense spurts of energy are the ones in which this
type excels. Social Assets ¶ Charm and responsiveness are the chief
social assets of the Thoracic. Inasmuch as these are the most valuable of
all social traits, he has a better natural start in human relationships
than any other type. Social Liabilities ¶ Quick temper, his inflammable nature and
appearances of vanity are his greatest social liabilities. They stand between
him and success many times. He must learn to control them if he
desires to reap the full benefit of his remarkable assets. Emotional Assets ¶ Instantaneous sympathy and the lack of
poisonous inhibitions are the outstanding emotional assets of this type. Emotional Liabilities ¶ Impatience, mercurial emotions and the
expenditure of too much of his electricity in every little experience are
the tendencies most to be guarded against. Business Assets ¶ That he is a “good mixer” and has the magnetism
to interest and attract others are his most valuable business
traits. Business Liabilities ¶ An appearance of flightiness and his tendency
to hop from one subject to another, stand in the way of the Thoracic’s
promotion many times. Domestic Strength ¶ The ability to entertain and please his
own family and to give of himself to them as freely as he gives himself
to the world at large, is one of the most lovable thoracic traits. Domestic Weakness ¶ The temperament and temper of this type
constitute a real domestic problem for those who live with them. But
they are so forgiving themselves that it is almost impossible to
hold anything against them. Should Aim At ¶ The Thoracic should aim at making fewer
decisions, at finishing what he starts, and of wasting less energy in unnecessary
words and motions. Should Avoid ¶ All situations, conditions and people who
“Slip the belt off the will,” who tend to cut life up into bits by
dissipation or pleasure-seeking, should be avoided by this
type because they aggravate his own weaknesses in that direction. Strong Points ¶ Personal ambition, adaptability and quick
physical energy are the strongest points of the Thoracic. Weakest Points ¶ Too great excitability, irresponsibility
and supersensitiveness, are the weakest points of this type. How to Deal with This Type Socially ¶ Give him esthetic surroundings, encourage
him to talk, and respond to what he says. These are the certain methods
for winning him in social intercourse. How to Deal with this Type in Business ¶ Get his name on the dotted line NOW, or
don’t expect it. If he is an employee let him come into direct contact
with people, give his personality a chance to get business for you,
don’t forget to praise him when deserved, and don’t pin him down to routine.
This type succeeds best in professions where his personal charm
can be capitalized, and does _not_ belong in any strictly commercial
business. _Remember, the chief distinguishing marks
of the Thoracic in the order of their importance, are FLUSHED COMPLEXION,
HIGH CHEST and LONG WAIST. Any person who has these is largely of the
Thoracic type, no matter what other types may be included in his makeup._ CHAPTER III The Muscular Type “The Worker” People in whom the muscular system is proportionately
larger and more highly developed than any of their other systems
are Musculars. This system consists of the muscles of the organism. The “Lean Meat” Type ¶ The muscle-system of the human body is
simply a co-ordinated, organized arrangement of layers of lean meat,
of which every individual has a complete set. An individual’s muscles may be small, flabby,
deficient in strength or so thin as to be almost imperceptible but
they are always there–elementary in the infant, full grown
in the adult and remnants in the aged. But they are so smoothly fitted
together, so closely knitted and usually so well covered that we seldom
realize their complexity or importance. In the pure Muscular type his muscles are
firm and large. Such muscles can not be disguised but seem to stand out
all over him. Helpless Without Them ¶ Without them we would be helpless masses
of fat and bone; we could not blink an eye nor lift a finger. Yet we are
so accustomed to them that we rarely think of them and seldom give them
credit for what they do. Without their wonder-work to adjust the eyes
we could not see; without their power the heart would cease to beat.
We can not smile, sob, speak nor sing without using them. We would have
no pianists, violinists, dancers, aviators, inventors or workers of
any kind without them. Everything we put together–from hooks and
eyes to skyscrapers–is planned by our brains but depends for its
materialization upon the muscles of the human body. How to Know Him ¶ Look at any individual and you will note
one of these three conditions: that his bones seem to be covered
just by skin and sinews (which means that he belongs to the fourth
type) or thickly padded with fat (in which case he is largely of the first
type) or well upholstered with _firm_ meat. In the latter case he is largely Muscular,
no matter what other types may be present in his makeup. In a short time you will be able to tell,
at a glance, whether the padding on an individual is mostly fat or
mostly muscle, because fat is always round and soft while muscle is firm
and definite. Physical Solidity ¶ A general solidity of structure, as distinguished
from the softness of the Alimentive and the resilience of the Thoracic,
characterizes the Muscular. (See Chart 5) Poke your finger into a fat man’s hand and
though it makes a dent that dent puffs back quickly. Do the same to the
Muscular and you will find a firmness and toughness of fiber that resists
but stays there longer once the dent is made. Not So Malleable ¶ This little illustration is typical of
the differences between these two natures throughout their entirety. Just
as the fat man’s face gives to your touch, _he_ will give in to you more
easily than any other type; but he will go back to the same place
sooner and more smoothly when your pressure is removed. [Illustration: 5 Muscular the worker] The Muscular does not mold so easily, is less
suggestible, is less tractable than the Alimentive or Thoracic
but is less likely to revert afterwards. Built on the Square ¶ “On the Square” is a figurative expression
usually applying to a moral tendency. In this sense it is as often possessed
by one type as another. But in a purely literal sense the Muscular
is actually built on the square. His whole figure is a combination
of squares. The Alimentive is built upon the circle, the
Thoracic on the kite-shape but the pure Muscular always tends toward
a squareness of outline. We repeat, he is no more “square” morally
than any other type, so do not make the mistake of attributing any more of
this virtue to him than to others. ¶ Each type has its own weaknesses and points
of strength as differentiated from other types and these
are responsible for most of the moral differences between people. No Type Superior Morally ¶ Since moral weakness comes from type weakness
and since each type possesses about as many weaknesses as the
others, it follows that no type is superior “morally” to any other and
no type is morally inferior to any other. Type and Temptation ¶ Morality is mostly a matter of how much
temptation you can withstand. Every individual in a civilized community
is surrounded by temptations of some kind most of the time. He does not
want to yield to any of them. Every man and woman does the best of which
his particular type is capable under a given circumstance. Each individual resists many temptations for
which we fail to give him credit. He yields only to those which make
such a strong appeal to his type that he lacks the power of resistance. In other words, each person yields to the
temptations that prey upon his particular weaknesses, and what his weaknesses
are will depend upon his type. In the grip of these temptations he
may commit anything from discourtesy to crime–according to the strength
of the temptation plus his own leaning in that direction. On the other hand, certain “immoralities”
which appeal strongly to some types have no attraction whatever for others
and these latter get credit for a virtuousness that has cost them nothing. Praise and Punishment ¶ On the other hand, each one of the five
human types has certain points of strength and from these gets its natural
“moral” qualities. We spend a great deal of energy giving praise and blame
but when we realize–as we are doing more and more–that the type
of an individual is responsible for most of his acts, we will
give less of both to the individual and more of both to the Creator. Type vs. Training ¶ The most that training can do is to brace
up the weak spots in us; to cultivate the strong ones; to teach us to
avoid inimical environments; and to constantly remind us of the penalties
we pay whenever we digress. Child Training ¶ As this great science of Human Analysis
becomes known the world will understand for the first time “how the other
half lives,” and _why_ it lives that way. We will know why one child just naturally
tells fibs while his twin brother, under identical training, just naturally
tells the truth. What is more to the point we will know this in
their childhood and be prepared to give to each the kind of training
which will weed out his worst and bring out his best. Short and Stocky ¶ The extreme Muscular type (See Chart 5)
is below medium height, though one of any height may be largely muscular. The extreme type, of which we are treating
in this chapter, is shorter and heavier than the average. But his heaviness
is due to _muscle_ instead of fat. He has the appearance of standing
firmly, solidly upon the ground, of being stalwart and strong. The Square-Shouldered Man ¶ The Muscular’s shoulders stand out more
nearly at right angles than those of any other type and are much broader
in proportion to his height. The Alimentive has sloping shoulders
and the Thoracic inclines to high shoulders. But the shoulders of the
pure Muscular are straighter and have a squareness where the
Alimentive’s have curves. This accounts for the fact that most of the
square shouldered men you have known were not tall men, but medium or
below medium in height. The wide square shoulders do not accompany any
other pure type, though naturally they may be present in an individual
who is a combination. Has Proportionately Long Arms ¶ The arms of pure Musculars are longer in
proportion to the body than the arms of other types. The arms of the Alimentive
are short for his body but the extreme Muscular’s arms are always
anywhere from slightly longer to very much longer than his height
would lead you to expect. The Pure Muscular Head ¶ A “square head” is the first thing you
think of when you look at a pure Muscular. His head has no such decided
digressions from the normal as the round head of the Alimentive or the
kite-shaped head of the Thoracic. It is not high for his body like
the Thoracic’s nor small for his body like the Alimentive’s, but is of
average proportions. [Illustration: 6 Typical MUSCULAR face Typical
MUSCULAR hand] His Thick Neck ¶ A distinctive feature of this type is his
thick neck. It is not fat like that of the Alimentive nor medium long
like that of the Thoracic but has unusual muscularity and strength. This is one of the chief indications of the
Muscular’s strength. A sturdy neck is one of the most significant
indications of physical prowess and longevity, while the frail neck–of
which we shall speak in connection with the fifth type–is always
a sign of the physical frailty which endangers life. The thickness of his
neck may sometimes give you the impression that the Muscular head is small
but if you will look again you will see that it is normal for his
bodily size. His Square Face ¶ Looking at him from directly in front you
will see that the Muscular’s face gives you an impression of squareness.
(See Chart 6) You will also notice that his side-head, cheeks and jaw
run up and down in such a way as to give him a right-angled face. His Square Jaw ¶ A broad jaw is another characteristic of
this type. Not only is it square, looked at from the front, but you
are pretty sure to note that the jaw bones, as they proceed downward under
the ear, tend to make a right-angled turn at the corners instead of
a rounded curve. These dimensions tend to give the whole lower
part of the Muscular’s face a box-like appearance. It is considered
becoming to men but robs its female owners of the delicate, pointed
chin so much desired by women. The Typical Muscular Hand ¶ Notice the hands of the people you meet
and you will be surprised to see how different and how interesting they
are. Their size, shape and structure as seen from the back of the hand
are especially significant and tell us much more about the individual’s
nature than the palm does. Perhaps you have thought that a hand was just
a hand. But there are hands and hands. Each pure type has its own
and no other is ever seen on the extreme of that type. The hand of the Muscular, like all the rest
of his body, is built in a series of squares. It runs out from the wrist
and down in a straighter line and tends to right angles. (See Chart
6) The Square Fingers of This Type ¶ “Spatulate fingers”–meaning fingers that
are square or paddle-shaped at the tips–are sure indications of a decided
muscular tendency. He may have other types in combination but
if his fingers are really square–“sawed off at the ends” in such a
way as to give them large instead of tapering ends–that person has
more than average muscularity and the activities of his life will tend in
the directions referred to in this chapter. The Manual Worker ¶ Musculars are the hand-workers of the world.
They are the artisans, craftsmen, the constructors and builders. We all tend to use most those organs or parts
of the body which are largest and most highly developed. The Muscular’s
hand is proportionately larger than the hand of any
other type. It has more muscle, that one element without which good
hand work is impossible. So it has followed inevitably that the manual
work of the world is done largely by Musculars. Their hands are also
so much more powerful that they do not tire easily. The Hand of the Creative Artist ¶ “The artist’s hand” and “the artistic hand”
are phrases long used but misused. Delicate tapering fingers were supposed
in ancient times to denote artistic ability. The frail curving
hand was also supposed to be a sign of artistic talent. From the stage of old down to the movies of
today the typical artist is pictured with a slight, slender hand. This tapering-fingered hand denotes a keen
sense of artistic values; a love of the esthetic, refined and beautiful;
and real artistic _appreciation_, but _not_ the ability to create. The “Hand Arts” ¶ Before we explain this, kindly understand
that we are speaking only of those arts which require hand work–and not
of such arts as singing, dancing, or musical composition which could
more properly be called artistic activities. We are referring only
to those arts which depend for their creation upon the human hand–such
as painting, architecture, craftsmanship, cartooning, sculpture, violin,
piano, etc. _All these are created by square fingered
people._ We are too much inclined to think of the products
of these arts as being created out of sheer artistic sense, artistic
taste or artistic insight. But a moment’s reflection will show that every
tangible artistic creation is the result of unusual hand work
combined with gifted head work. Without a sure, strong, well-knit hand
the ideas of the greatest artists could never have materialized. The
lack of such a hand explains why the esthetic, the artistic-minded and
the connoisseur do not _create_ the beautiful things they _appreciate_. Head and Hand Partners ¶ The hand must execute what the brain plans
and it must be so perfect a mechanism for this that it responds to the
most elusive inspirations of the artist. It must be a fifty per cent partner,
else its owner will never produce real art. No type has this strong, sure, co-ordinated
hand-machine to any such degree as the Muscular. The finger ends, which are of the utmost significance
in the creation of artistic things, must be fitted with well
developed muscles of extreme efficiency or the execution will fall short
of the ideal pictured in the artist’s mind. The pure Muscular type seldom makes an artist,
for, after all, inspired brain work is the other important element
in the creation of art, and this is the forte of the fifth type. A combination
of the fifth type with the Muscular makes most hand artists.
A combination of the Muscular and Thoracic makes most singers. Every hand
artist will be found to have spatulate-fingered hands–in short, muscular
hands. The hand of the famous craftsman, pianist,
sculptor and painter, instead of being more frail and delicate, is always
larger and heavier than that of the average person. Such a hand is a certain
indication of the muscular element in that individual’s makeup. His Powerful Movements ¶ Forceful, decisive movements also characterize
this type. He is inclined to go at even the most trivial things
with as much force as if the world depended on it. Recently we were exhibiting a small pencil
sharpener to a muscular friend. It was so sharp that it performed
its work without pressure. But she took hold of it as if it were a piece
of artillery and pushed the pencil into it with all the force she had. When we remonstrated smilingly–for her face
and hands are ultra-square–she said, “But I can’t do anything
lightly. I just naturally put that much force into everything.” His Forceful Walk ¶ Heavy, powerful, forceful strides distinguish
the walk of this type. If he has but ten steps to go he will start
off as if beginning an around-the-world marathon. You Hear Him Coming ¶ All Musculars notify people, by their walk,
of their approach. They are unconscious of this loud incisive tread,
and most of them will be surprised to read it here. But their friends
will recognize it. The chances are that they have often spoken of
it amongst themselves. The Loud Voice ¶ The “steam-calliope voice” belongs almost
always to a Muscular. He does his talking just as he does everything
else–with all his might. It is very difficult for the Muscular to “tone
down” this powerful voice. His long-suffering friends will testify
to this characteristic. His Stentorian Tones ¶ This loud voice is a serious social handicap
to him. His only chance of compensation for it lies in its use before
juries, congregations or large audiences. It might be noted here that every great orator
has been largely of this type, and also that his fame came not alone
from the things he said but from the stentorian tones in which he said
them. Famous Male Singers ¶ Caruso, John McCormack and all other famous
male singers had large thoracic systems, but in every instance it
was combined with a large muscular development. The Solid Sitter ¶ When a Muscular sits down he does it as
he does everything–with definiteness and force. He does not spill
over as does the Alimentive nor drape himself gracefully like the Thoracic,
but planks himself as though he meant business. Activity His Keynote ¶ Because he is especially built for it the
Muscular is more active than any other type. Without muscles no organism
could move itself from the spot in which it was born. Biology teaches us that the stomach was the
first thing evolved. The original one-call organism possessed but one
function–digestion. As life progressed it became necessary to send
nutriment to those parts of the organism not touched by the stomach. For the purpose of reaching these suburbs
there was involved the circulatory or Thoracic system, and this gave
rise, as we have seen in the previous chapter, to the Thoracic type. Movement and Development ¶ As time went on movement became necessary,
full development not being possible to any static organism. To meet this
need muscles were evolved, and organic life began to move. It was only a wiggle at first, but that wiggle
has grown till today it includes every kind of labor, globe trotting
and immigration. The Muscular is fitted with the best traveling
equipment of any type and invariably lives a life whose main reactions
express these things. The Immigrant Muscular ¶ No matter what his work or play the Muscular
will make more moves during the course of a day than other types.
He loves action because his muscles, being over-equipped for it, keep
urging him from within to do things. As a result this type makes up most of the
immigrants of the world. Italians, Poles, Greeks, Russians, Germans
and Jews are largely of this type and these are the races furnishing the
largest number of foreigners in America. Inertness Irks Him ¶ Shut up a Muscular and you destroy him.
His big muscle system cries out for something to do. He becomes restless,
nervous and ill when confined or compelled to be idle. The Alimentive loves an easy time but the
Muscular dislikes ease except when exhausted. Even then it is almost impossible
to stop him. Must Be Doing Something ¶ “I can’t bear to be doing nothing!” you
often hear people say. Such a person always has plenty of muscle. Musculars
want to feel that they are not wasting time. They must be “up and doing,”
accomplishing something. If there is nothing near them that needs doing
they are sure to go and find something. The Born Worker ¶ Work is second nature to this type. He
really prefers it. Everyone likes some kind of work when in the
mood if it serves a purpose or an ideal. But the Muscular likes work for
its own sake–or rather for the activity’s sake. Work palls on the Alimentive and monotony
on the Thoracic, but leisure is what palls on the Muscular. He may have
worked ten years without a vacation and he may imagine he wants a long
one, but by the morning of the third day you will notice he has found
a piece of work for himself. It may be nothing more than hanging the screen
door, chopping the wood or dusting the furniture, but it will furnish
him with some kind of activity. Because he enjoys action for its own sake
and because work is only applied action, this type makes the best worker.
He can be trusted to work harder than any other type. Require Less Watching ¶ It is no accident that the three-hundred-men
gangs of foreign workmen who dig ditches, tunnels and tubes, construct
buildings, railroads and cities work with fewer foremen and supervisors
than are ordinarily required to keep much smaller forces of other
employees at their posts. Seldom Unemployed ¶ For this reason the Muscular is seldom
out of work. He is in demand at the best current wages because he can be depended
upon to “keep at it.” ¶ While writing this book our windows overlook
a public park in one of America’s one-million-population cities. Hundreds
of unemployed men sleep there day and night. Having occasion
to pass through this park daily for several months it has been interesting
to note the types predominating. Hardly one per cent belonged
to the Muscular type. Likes To Do Things ¶ Because he is such a hard worker this type
gets a good deal of praise and glory just as the fat people, who manage
to get out of work, receive a good deal of blame. Yet work is almost as
pleasant to the Muscular as leisure is to the Alimentive. The Muscular’s Pugnacity ¶ Fighters–those who really enjoy a scrap
occasionally–are invariably Musculars. Their square jaws–the sure sign
of great muscularity–are famous the world over and especially so in
these days when war is once more in fashion. The next time you look at the front faces
of Pershing, Haig, Hindenberg or even that of your traffic policeman, note
the extremely muscular face and jaw. Combat or personal fighting is a
matter of muscle-action. Being well equipped for it this type actually enjoys
it. That is why he is oftener in trouble than any other type. It was no accident that the phrase “big stick”
was the slogan of an almost pure Muscular. Loves the Strenuous Life ¶ “The strenuous life” was another of Roosevelt’s
pet phrases and came from the natural leanings of his type. The
true Muscular is naturally strenuous. Because we are prone to advise
others to do what we enjoy doing ourselves it was inevitable that so
strenuous a man as T. R. should advocate wholesale, universal and almost
compulsory strenuosity. We tell others to do certain things because
“it will do you good” but the real reason usually is that we like to
do it ourselves. The Acrobatic Type ¶ The next time you go to a vaudeville show
get there in time for the acrobatics and notice how all the participants
are Musculars. If there are any other types taking part please observe
that they are secondary to the acrobats–they catch the handkerchiefs
or otherwise act as foils for the real performers. All the hard work in the act will be done
by Musculars. You will find no better examples of the short, stocky, well-knit
pure Muscular than here. You do not need to wait for another show to
realize how true this is. Recall the form and height of all the acrobats
you have ever seen. You will remember that there was not one who did
not fit the description of the pure Muscular given at the beginning of
this chapter. Acrobats Always Muscular ¶ We once had occasion to refer to this fact
in a Human Analysis Class. One member declared that just that week he
had seen a very tall, unmuscular man performing in an acrobatic
act at the Orpheum. Knowing that this was impossible, we offered
a large reward to this member if he were proven right. We sent to
the theater and found the acrobat in question. He had just finished
his act and kindly consented to come over. He turned out to be a pure Muscular as we
had stated. The class member’s mistake came from the fact that the acrobat
appeared taller than he really was. High platforms always give this
illusion. Furthermore his partner in the act was of diminutive height
and the acrobat looked tall and slender by contrast. Why They Don’t Do It ¶ To be an acrobat is the ambition of almost
every boy. There have been few who did not dream, while doing those stunts
in the haymow on Mother’s broomstick, of the glory that should
be theirs when they grew up and performed in red tights for the multitudes. Almost every boy has this ambition because
he passes through a stage of decided muscular development in his early
years. But only those who were born with much larger muscles than the average
ever carry out their dreams. The others soon develop girth or the
“sitting still” habit to the point where a cushioned seat in the first
row of the parquet looks much better. Durability in Clothes ¶ Something that will wear well is what this
type asks for when he drops in to buy a suit. Musculars are not parsimonious
nor stingy. Their buying the most durable in everything is not
so much to save money as for the purpose of having something they do
not need to be afraid to handle. Likes Heavy Materials ¶ This type likes heavy, stable materials.
Whereas the Alimentive wants comfortable clothes and the Thoracic distinctive
ones the Muscular wants wearable, “everyday” clothes. He wants the materials to be of the best but
he cares less for color than the Thoracic. Quality rather than style
and plainness rather than prettiness are his standards in dress. “Making over father’s pants for Johnnie” is
a job Muscular women have excelled in and for which they have become
famous. For this type of mother not only sees to it that father’s pants
are of the kind of stuff that won’t wear out easily but she has the
square, creative hand that enjoys construction. The Plain Dresser ¶ Simple dresses–blue serge, for instance–are
the ones the Muscular woman likes. This type cares little about
clothes as ornamentation. He is intent on getting his desires satisfied
by DOING things, not by looking them. He also resents the time and
trouble that fashionable dressing demands. No matter how much money
this type has he will not be inclined to extremes in dress. Musculars are
not really interested in clothes for clothes’ sake. It is not that
this type is unambitious. He is extremely so, but he is so concentrated
on “getting things done” that he is likely to forget how he looks while
doing them. When a person of this type does take great
pains with his clothes it is always for a purpose, and not because he enjoys
preening himself. There is little of the peacock in the Muscular. A Simple Soul ¶ Musculars are the most democratic of all
the types. The Thoracic is a natural aristocrat, and enjoys the feeling
of a little innocent superiority. But Musculars often refuse to
take advantage of superior positions gained through wealth or station,
and are inclined to treat everybody as an equal. It is almost impossible
for this type, even though he may have become or have been born
a millionaire, to “lord it over” servants or subordinates. He is given
to backing democratic movements of all kinds. This explains why
Musculars constitute the large majority in every radical group. Humanness His Hobby ¶ Being “human” is an ideal to which this
type adheres with almost religious zeal. He likes the commonplace things
and is never a follower after “the thing” though he has no prejudices
against it, as the fourth type has. An Everyday Individual ¶ The Muscular does not care for “show” and,
except when essential to the success of his aims, seldom does anything
for “appearances.” He is not an easy-going companion like the
Alimentive nor a scintillating one like the Thoracic, but an
everyday sort of person. When in Trouble ¶ This type is not given to sliding out of
difficulties like the Alimentive nor to being temporarily submerged
by them like the Thoracic. He “stands up to them” and backs
them down. When in trouble he acts, instead of merely thinking. The Most Practical Type ¶ “The Practicalist” is often used to describe
this type. He is inclined to look at everything from the standpoint
of its practicality and is neither stingy nor extravagant. He Likes What Works ¶ “Will it work?” is the question this type
puts to everything. If it won’t, though it be the most fascinating or
the most diverting thing in the world, he will take little interest in
it. This type depends mostly upon his own hands
and head to make his fortune for him, and is seldom lured into risking
money on things he has not seen. The Natural Efficiency Expert ¶ The shortest, surest way is the one this
type likes. He is not inclined to fussiness. He insists on things
being done in the most efficient way and he usually does them that
way himself. He is not an easy man to work for, but quick to reward
merit. The Muscular does not necessarily demand money nor the things that
money buys but he tries to get the workable out of life. The Property Owner ¶ This type likes to have a fair bank account
and to give his children a worth while training. He is less inclined
to bedeck them with frills but he will plan years ahead for their education. These are not rigid parents like the fourth
type, lenient like the Alimentives, nor temperamental with their
children like the Thoracics, but practical and very efficient in their
parenthood. They are very fond of their children but do not “spoil” them
as often as some of the other types do. They bring up their children to work and teach
them early in life how to do things. As a result, the children of this
type become useful at an early age and usually know how to earn a living
if necessary. Wants the Necessities ¶ The necessities of life are things this
type demands and gets. Whereas the Alimentive demands the comforts and the
Thoracic the unusual, the Muscular demands the essentials. He is willing
to work for them, so he usually succeeds. He is not given to rating frills and fripperies
as necessities but demands the things everyday men or women need
for everyday existence. Naturally he goes after them with the same
force he displays in everything else. His Heart and Soul in Things ¶ When some one shows great intensity of
action directed toward a definite end we often say “he puts his heart
and soul into it.” This phrase is apropos of almost everything the
Muscular does. He makes no half-hearted attempts. An Enthusiast ¶ “Enthusiasm does all things” said Emerson,
and therein explained why this type accomplishes so much. The reason
back of the Muscular’s enthusiasm is interesting. All emotions powerfully affect muscles. A
sad thought flits through your mind and instantly the muscles of your face
droop and the corners of your mouth go down. Hundreds of similar illustrations
with which you are already familiar serve to prove how close
is the connection between emotions and muscles. The heart itself is
nothing more nor less than a large, tough, leather-like muscle. Possessing the best equipment for expressing
emotion, the Muscular is constantly and automatically using it. Therefore he becomes an enthusiast over many
things during the course of his lifetime. This enthusiasm literally burns
his way to the things he wants. The Plain Talker ¶ When deeply moved this type talks well.
If the mental element is also strong he can become a good public speaker
for he will then have all the qualifications–a powerful voice, human sympathy,
democracy and simplicity. In private conversation he is inclined to
use the verbal hammers too much and to be too drastic in his statements,
accusations, etc. But he means what he tells you, no more, and usually
not much less. He avoids long words and complicated phrases
even when well educated and speaks with directness and decisiveness. Straightforward ¶ “Straight from the shoulder” might be used
to describe the method of the pure Muscular in what he does and says.
He does not deal in furbelows, dislikes the superfluous and the
superficial. He goes through life over the shortest roads. Likes the Common People ¶ Plain folks like himself are the kind this
type prefers for friends. He enjoys them immensely, but does not cultivate
as large a number of them as does the Thoracic, nor have as many
“bowing acquaintances” as the Alimentive. Snubs the Snobs ¶ The snob is disliked by every one but is
the especial aversion of this type. Being so democratic himself and living
his life along such commonplace lines, he has no patience with
people who imagine they are better than others or who carry the air of
superiority. The only person therefore whom the Muscular
is inclined to snub is the snob. He is not overawed by him and enjoys
“taking him down a peg,” whenever he tries his high and mighty airs
on him. Defends the “Under Dog” ¶ Standing by the under dog is a kind of
religion with this type. He glories in fighting for the downtrodden. This
explains why he is so often a radical. Much of this vehemence in
radicalism is due to the fact that he feels he is getting even with the
snobs of the world–the plutocrats–when he furthers the causes of
the proletariat. Often on the Warpath ¶ To “have it out” with you is the first
inclination of this type when he becomes angry. He is apt to say atrocious things and to exaggerate
his grievances. Everything must yield to his “dander” once
it is up. Being possessed of a highly developed fighting equipment, he
is like a battleship, with every gun in place, most of the time. He is frequently in violent quarrels with
his friends, and since he does not recover from his anger quickly like the
Thoracic, he often loses them for life. The Most Generous Friend ¶ When they like you the Musculars are the
most abandoned in their generosity of all the types. They “go the
limit” for you, as the Westerner says, and they go it with their
money, time, love and enthusiasm. All types do this for short periods occasionally
and for a very few choice friends. But the Muscular often does
it for people he scarcely knows if they strike his fancy or appeal to
him. His heart and his home belong to the stranger
almost as completely as to his family, for he does not feel a stranger
to any one. He feels from the first moment, and acts, as though he had
known you always. This accounts for his democracy, for his success
as an orator, and–sometimes for his being “broke.” Not a Quick Forgiver ¶ But disappoint him in anything he considers
vital and he does not overlook it easily. He finds it especially
difficult to forgive people who take advantage of the generosity he so
lavishly extends. But he does not make his hate a life-long one, as the
fourth type does. With all his own giving to others he seldom
takes much from others. The Naturally Independent ¶ “Standing on his own legs” is a well-known
trait of the Muscular. Dependence is bred of necessity. This type
being able to get for himself most of the things he wants, rarely finds
it necessary to call upon others for assistance. Love of self-government, plus fighting pluck,
both of which are inherent in the Muscular Irish race, are responsible
for the long struggle for their independence. Likes Plain Foods ¶ “Meat and potatoes” are the favorite diet
of the average American Muscular. The Alimentive wants richness and
sweetness in food, the Thoracic wants variety and daintiness but
the Muscular wants large quantities of plain food. The Alimentive specializes in desserts, the
Thoracic in unusual dishes, but the Muscular wants solid fare. He is so
fond of meat it is practically impossible for him to confine
himself to a vegetable diet. When He is in Moderate Circumstances ¶ The Muscular is most often found in moderate
circumstances. He is rarely far below or far above them. Most of
the plain, simple, everyday things he desires can be secured by people
of average means. He does not feel the necessity for becoming a millionaire
to obtain comforts like the Alimentive, nor for extravagances like
the Thoracic. When He is Rich ¶ Philanthropy marks the expenditures of
this type whenever he is rich. He does not spend as much of his money for
possessions but enjoys investing it in what he deems the real–that
is, other human beings. The most plain and durable things in furnishings,
architecture and service characterize the rich of this type
in their homes. The World’s Work Done by Musculars ¶ Broadly speaking, the fat man manages the
world, the florid man entertains the world, and the muscular man
does the work of the world. He composes most of the day-laborers, the
middle men, the manual and mechanical toilers the world around, as we
have stated before. He could get out of his hard places into better
paid ones if he did not like activity so well, but lacking the love
of ease and show he is willing to work hard for the necessities of
life. Simple Habits ¶ The Muscular’s nature does not demand the
exciting, the gregarious or the food-and-drink things that lead toward
laxity. He is seldom a dissipator. He likes to go
to bed early, work hard and make practical progress in his life. He leads the simple and yet the most strenuous
existence of any type. Entertainment He Enjoys ¶ Plays about plain people, their everyday
experiences, hopes and fears are the kind that interest this type most. The “problem play” of a decade ago was a prime
favorite with him. He likes everything dealing with these everyday
commonplace affairs with which he is most familiar. He frequently goes to serious lectures–something
the pure Alimentive always avoids–and he especially enjoys them
if they deal with the problem of the here and now. He cares little for comic opera, vaudeville
or revues because he feels they serve no practical purpose and get him
nowhere. This type does not attend the theater merely to be amused. He
goes for light on his everyday experiences and usually considers
time wasted that is spent solely on entertainment. Music He Likes ¶ Band music, stirring tunes and all music
with “go” to it appeals to this type. Reading ¶ True stories, news and the sport page are
the favorite newspaper reading of the Muscular. He does not take
to sentimental stories so much as the Alimentive, nor to adventure so much
as the Thoracic but sticks to practical subjects almost exclusively. Being active most of his waking hours, and
strenuously active at that, the Muscular is often too tired at night to
read anything. His Favorite Sports ¶ The most violent sports are popular with
this type. Football, baseball, handball, tennis, rowing and pugilism
are his preferences. All experts in these lines are largely Muscular. Physical Assets ¶ His wonderful muscular development, upon
which depends so much of life’s happiness–since accomplishment is
measured so largely thereby–is the greatest physical asset of
this type. With it he can accomplish almost anything of which his mind
can conceive. He is capable of endless effort, does not
tire easily, and because of his directness makes his work count to the
utmost of his mental capacity. Physical Liabilities ¶ A tendency to overwork is the chief physical
pitfall of this type. The disease to which he is most susceptible is
rheumatism. But owing to his love of activity he exercises more than any
other type and thus forestalls many diseases. Social Assets ¶ His generosity is the strongest social
asset of the Muscular. He is usually straightforward and sincere and thereby
gains the confidence of those who meet him. Social Liabilities ¶ His loud voice and his plain ways are the
disadvantages under which this type labors in social intercourse. He
needs polishing and is not inclined to take it. His pugnacity is also
a severe drawback. Emotional Assets ¶ Understanding, enthusiasm and warmth of
heart are the emotional qualities which help to make him the public
leader he so often is. These have made him the “born orator,” the radical
and the reformer of all ages. Emotional Liabilities ¶ His tendency to anger and combat are shackles
that seriously handicap him. Many times these lose him the big opportunities
which his splendid traits might obtain for him. Business Assets ¶ Efficiency and willingness to work hard
and long are the greatest business assets of this type. Business Liabilities ¶ Pugnacity over trifles costs the average
Muscular many business chances. He has to fight out every issue and
while he is doing it the other fellow closes the deal. He is inclined to argue at great length. This
helps him as a lawyer or speaker but it hurts him in business. Curbing
his combativeness in business should be one of his chief aims. Domestic Strength ¶ Practical protection for the future is
the greatest gift of the average Muscular to his family. He is not
as lenient with his children as is the Alimentive nor as effusive as the
Thoracic, but he usually lays by something for their future. Domestic Weakness ¶ Cruel, angry words do the Muscular much
harm in his family life. They cause his nearest and dearest to hold against
him the resentments that follow. Should Aim At ¶ Taking more frequent vacations, relaxing
each day, and curbing his pugnacity should be the special aims of this
type. Should Avoid ¶ Superficial and quarrelsome people, all
situations requiring pretence, and everything that confines and restricts
his physical activity should be avoided by this type. Strongest Points ¶ Democracy, industry and great physical
strength are the strongest points of this type. Weakest Points ¶ Inclination to overwork and to fight constitute
the Muscular’s two weakest links. How to Deal with this Type Socially ¶ Don’t put on airs nor expect him to when
you are meeting this type socially. Be straightforward and genuine with
him if you would win him. How to Deal with this Type in Business ¶ Remember, this type is inclined to be efficient
and democratic and you had better be the same if you wish to succeed
with him in business. He is intensely resentful of the man who tries
to put anything over on him; and demands efficiency. So when you promise
him a thing see to it that you deliver the goods and for the price
stated. He does not mind paying a good price if he knows it in the
beginning, but beware of raising it afterwards. The Muscular is serious
in business, not a jollier like the Alimentive, nor a thriller
like the Thoracic, and he wants you to be the same. _Remember, the chief distinguishing marks
of the Muscular, in the order of their importance, are LARGE, FIRM MUSCLES,
A SQUARE JAW and SQUARE HANDS. Any person who has these is largely
of the Muscular type, no matter what other types may be included in
his makeup._ CHAPTER IV The Osseous Type “The Stayer” Men and women in whom the Osseous or bony
framework of the body is more highly developed than any other system are
called the Osseous type. This system consists of the bones of the body
and makes what we call the skeleton. Just as the previous systems were developed
during man’s biological evolution for purposes serving the needs of
the organism–first, a stomach-sack, then a freight system in the
form of arteries to carry the food to remoter parts of the body, and later
muscles with which to move itself about–so this bony scaffolding was
developed to hold the body upright and better enable it to defend and
assert itself. [Illustration: 7 Osseous “the stayer”] Man is a creature who, in spite of his height,
walks erect. He can so do only by means of the support given him by
his bony framework. The human body is like a tall building–the muscles
are like the mortar and plaster, the bones are like the steel framework
around which everything else is built and without which the structure
could not stand upright. How to Know Him ¶ Prominent ankles, wrists, knuckles and
elbows are sure signs that such an individual has a large osseous or bony
element in his makeup. When you look at any person you quickly discern
whether fat, bone or muscle predominates in his construction. If
fat predominates he leans toward the Alimentive, no matter what other
types he may have in combination; if firm, well-defined muscles
are conspicuous, he is largely Muscular; but if his bones are _proportionately
large for his body_ he has much of the Osseous type in his
makeup. The “Raw-Boned” Man ¶ “Raw-boned” exactly describes the appearance
of the extreme Osseous. (See Chart 7) Such a man is a contrast to others in any
group and a figure with which all of us are familiar. But that his inner
nature differs as widely from others as his external appearance differs
from theirs is something only recently discovered. As we proceed through this chapter you will
be interested to note how every trait attributed to this type applies
with absolute accuracy to every extremely raw-boned, angular person
you have ever known. You will also notice how these traits have predominated
in every person whose bones were large for his body. Though this type was the last to be classified
by science it is the most extreme of them all. Physical Rigidity ¶ An impression of physical rigidity is given
by the extreme Osseous. Such a man or woman looks stable, unchanging,
immovable–as though he could take a stand and keep to it through
thick and thin. So vividly do very tall, angular, raw-boned
people convey this impression that they are seldom approached
by beggars, barked at by street vendors, or told to “step lively.” His Size Looks Formidable ¶ The power of his physique is evident to
all who look at him. The strength indicated by his large joints, angular
hands and general bulk intuitively warns others to let this kind
of person alone. He is therefore unmolested for the most part,
whether he walks down the streets of his home town or wanders the byways
of dangerous vicinities. His Ruggedness ¶ This type also looks rugged. He reminds
us of “the rugged Rockies.” He appears firm, fixed, impassive–as though
everything about him was permanent. Externals are not accidental; they always
correspond to the internal nature in every form of life. And it is not
accidental that the Osseous looks all of these things. He is all of them
as definitely as they can be expressed in human nature. The Steady Man ¶ Of all human types the Osseous is the most
dependable and reliable. The phrases, “that man is steady,” “never
flies off the handle,” “always the same,” etc., are invariably used concerning
those of more than average bony structure. Immovability His Keynote ¶ The keynote of the bony man’s whole nature–mental,
physical and moral–is immovability. Once he settles into a place of any kind–a
town, a home, or even a chair–he is disinclined to move. He does
not settle as quickly as other types but when he does it is for a longer
stay. Think how different he is from others in this
psychological trait and how it coincides exactly with his physiological
structure. The fat man lets you make temporary dents
in his plans just as you make them in a piece of fat meat. But the bony
man is exactly the opposite, just as bone is difficult to twist, or turn,
or alter in any way. It takes a long time and much effort–but once
it is changed it is there for good. The “Six-Footer” ¶ Because any individual’s height is determined
by his skeleton, extreme tallness is a sign of a larger than average
bony structure. The extreme Osseous is therefore tall. But you must remember that large joints are
more significant than height. Even when found in short people they
indicate a large osseous tendency. Large Bones for His Body ¶ So bear in mind that any person whose _bones
are large for his body_ is somewhat of the Osseous type, regardless
of whether he is short or tall and regardless of how much fat or muscle
he may have. The large-jointed person when fat is an Osseous-Alimentive.
A large-jointed man of muscle would be an Osseous-Muscular. The “Small Osseous” ¶ A very short person then may be predominantly
Osseous if his bones are proportionately large for his body. Such an
individual is called a “Small Osseous.” A head that is high for his body and inclines
to be straight up and down goes with the extreme Osseous type. (See Chart
8) It does not resemble a sphere like the Alimentive, is not kite-shaped
like the Thoracic, nor square like the Muscular. It is higher than
any of the others, stands on a longer, more angular neck, and his “Adam’s
Apple” is usually in evidence. The Pioneer Type ¶ Like each of the other types, the Osseous
is a result of a certain environment. Rigorous, remote regions require
just such people, and these finally gave rise to this stoical nature.
The outposts of civilization are responsible for his evolution. [Illustration 8: A: Typical OSSEOUS face B:
Typical OSSEOUS hand] Pioneering, with its hardship, its menacing
cold and dearth of comforts, in far countries at last produced a man who
could stand them, who could “live through” almost anything and still dominate
his surroundings. Not a “Softie” ¶ The Osseous does not give way to his feelings.
He keeps his griefs, sorrows, ambitions and most of his real opinions
to himself. He is the farthest from a “softie” of any type. If you desire to know at once what kind of
person the Osseous is, put the Alimentive and Thoracic types together
and mix them thoroughly. The Osseous is the _opposite_ of that mixture. Each and every trait he possesses is one whose
exact opposite you will find in one or the other of these first two
types. Consistency in Types ¶ As we go on in this chapter you will see
why all kinds of people make up the world, for Nature has outdone herself
in the distinctions between the five human types. Each type is made up of certain groups of
traits with which we have come in contact all our lives but which we have
never classified; and each “set” of traits comprising a type has a consistency
which nothing less than Mother Nature could have produced. You
will be interested to see how accurate are the statements concerning
each type and how they are proven again and again in every type you associate
with. Guesswork is no longer necessary in the sizing
up of strangers. You can know them better than their mothers know them
if you will get these nutshells of facts clearly in your mind and
then _apply_ them. His High Cheek Bones ¶ Cheek bones standing higher than the average
are always indicative either of a large Thoracic or a large Osseous
element. If the distance between the cheeks is so wide
as to make this the widest section of the face, it is probable that the
person is more Thoracic than Osseous. But if his face is narrow across
the cheek bones, and especially if it runs perpendicularly down
to the jaw-corners from that point instead of tapering, the person is large
of the Osseous type. Built on the Oblong ¶ An oblong is what the Osseous brings to
mind. His body outlines approximate the oblong–a squareness plus
length. He is full of right angles and sharp corners. (See Chart 7) His face is built on the oblong (See Chart
8) and if you will notice the side-head of the next Osseous man you meet
you will see that even a side view presents more nearly the appearance of
the oblong than of any other geometrical figure. The Oblong Hand ¶ “The gnarled hand” well describes that
of the Osseous. The hand outlines of this type also approximate the
oblong. (See Chart 8) It runs straight down instead of tapering when the
fingers are held close together. The hand of the Osseous matches his body,
head and face. It is bony, angular, large-jointed and as rigid as it
looks. The inflexibility of his hand is always apparent in his handshake. Knotty Fingers ¶ Knotty fingers characterize the hands of
this type. Their irregular appearance comes from the size of the joints
which are large, in keeping with all the joints running throughout his
organism. Everything in one of Nature’s creatures matches
the other parts. Agassiz, the great naturalist, when given
the scale of a fish could reconstruct for you the complete organism
of the type of fish from which it came. Give a tree-leaf to a botanist and
he will reconstruct the size, shape, structure and color of the tree
back of it. He will describe to you its native environment and
its functions; what its bark, blossoms and branches look like and what to
do to make it grow. No Guesswork in Nature ¶ Nature has no accidents. With her everything
is organized, everything has a purpose, and every part of a thing,
inside and out, matches the whole. So the hand of the Osseous and the
face of the Osseous match the body and head. This is also true of every other type. The
Alimentive has small, fat, dimpled hands and feet like his body; the
Thoracic has tapering hands and feet to match his face and body; the Muscular’s
body, hands and feet are all square; but the Osseous has a bony
body, so his hands and feet are equally bony. The Man of Slow Movements ¶ “He is too slow for me,” you have heard
some one say of another. Perhaps you heard it said today. Review the
outward appearance of all the people you know who have this reputation,
from those of your earliest childhood down to that person of
whom it was spoken today–and you will find that every one of them resembled
the bony type we have just been describing. Look back and call to mind the appearance
of all the “rapid” ones and you will find that in every case they possessed
high color, high chests or high-bridged noses. Take another look for
the easy-going amenable ones, and see how plump they all were! The Straight-Laced ¶ None of these things “just happened.” They
are the result of the law of cause and effect. The connection between
external and internal traits is becoming clearer every day and reveals
some very unexpected things. One that has been discovered very recently
is that the straight-faced are the straight-laced. Notice for yourself
and you will find that every person who is really “straight-laced” is a
person with a straight face–that is, a face with straighter up-and-down
lines than the average. Think back over those you have known who come
under this heading and you will find no actually round-faced people
amongst them. No matter how sanctimonious, religious or
correct a person may act when his position or the occasion demands it, if
he has a round, “moon” face he is not really straight-laced at heart.
Any one who knows him well enough to know his real nature will tell you
so. The Naturally Conventional ¶ The “born Puritan,” the ascetic, and the
naturally conventional person is, on the other hand, invariably an individual
of more severe facial outlines. This person may be in an unconventional position;
your straight-faced, severe-lined person may be a gambler, a boot-legger,
or follow any other line defying the conventions; but he is at
heart a conservative after all. For instance, you will always find, when
you know him, that he does things in a way that is very conventional
to him. That is, he has decided standards, rules, habits and requirements,
and he clings rigidly to them in the transaction of his business,
regardless of how lax the business itself may be. “A certain way of doing things” means as much
to him, at heart, as it means little to the circular-faced people. Systematic and Methodical ¶ “A place for everything and everything
in its place” is a rule preached and practised by people of this type. The Osseous person does not mislay his things.
He knows so well where they are that he can “go straight to them
in the dark.” Such a man is careful of his tools and keeps his work-bench
or desk “shipshape.” A woman of this type is an excellent housekeeper.
Her sewing basket, dresser drawers and pantry shelves are all
systematically arranged in apple-pie order. The typical New England housewife, who washes
on Mondays, irons on Tuesdays and bakes on Saturdays for forty
years, is a direct descendant of the Puritans, most of whom belong to this
bony, pioneering type. The Stiff Sitter ¶ Extremely Osseous people are inclined to
be somewhat formal in their movements. They make fewer motions than any
other type. They do not wave their hands or arms about when talking
and are almost devoid of gesticulation of any kind. They sit upright
instead of slumping down in their chairs, except when tall and lanky,
and usually prefer “straight-backs” to rockers. The Osseous Walk ¶ The extremely raw-boned person has also
a formal gait. His walk, like all his other movements, is inclined to be
deliberate and somewhat mechanical. ¶ Nothing about the five types is more interesting
than the walk which distinguishes each. The Alimentive undulates
or rolls along; the Thoracic is an impulsive walker, and the Muscular
is forceful in his walk. But the Osseous walks mechanically,
deliberately, and refuses to hurry or speed up. The Naturally Poised ¶ The Osseous has more natural poise than
any other type. He is not impressionable, excitable or arousable.
Things do not “stir him up” as they do other people. He is more
self-contained, self-controlled and self-sufficient than any
other. He is not easily carried off his feet and seldom yields to
impulse. It is difficult to get him to do anything on the spur of the
moment. He usually has his evenings, Sundays and vacations all planned
in advance and won’t change his schedule. Not Given to “Nerves” ¶ Literally as well as figuratively the Osseous
is not a man of “nerves.” Every fiber of his being is less
susceptible to outside stimuli than that of other types. In this
he is the exact opposite of the Thoracic whose nerves, as we have pointed
out, are so finely organized that he is hypersensitive. Resists Change ¶ Osseous people do not change anything,
from their hair dress to their minds, any oftener than necessary. When they
do, it is for what they consider overpoweringly good reasons. These people are not flighty. They have their
work, their time and their lives laid out systematically and do not allow
trivialities to upset them. They take a longer time to deliberate
on a proposed line of action, but once they have made a decision,
adhere to it with much greater tenacity than any other type. The Constant ¶ People of this type are not fickle nor
flirtatious. They love few; but once having become enamored are not easily
turned aside. It is this type that remains true to one love through
many years, sometimes for life. The Implacable ¶ The Osseous are not prone to sudden outbursts
of temper. But they have the unbending kind when it is aroused. Never forgiving and never forgetting is a
trait of these people as contrasted with the Thoracic. The Alimentive avoids those he does not like
and forgets them because it is too much bother to hate; the Thoracic flames
up one moment and forgives the next; the Muscular takes it out
in a fight then and there, or argues with you about it. But the Osseous despises, hates and loathes–and
keeps on for years after every one else has forgotten all about
it. The “rock-bound Puritan” type, as stony as the New England
land from which it gets its living, is always bony. The implacable father
who turns his child away from home, with orders “never to darken his
door again,” always has a lot of bone in his structure. Those who refuse
to be softened into forgiveness by the years are always of this
type. Not Adaptable ¶ It is difficult for the Osseous to “fit
in.” He is not adaptable and in this is once again the opposite of the
Thoracic. It is impossible for him to adjust himself quickly to people or
places. Because he is unyielding, unbending and unadjustable
he is called “sot in his ways.” He should not be misjudged for this inadaptability,
however, for it is as natural to him as smoothness is to the
Alimentive and impulsiveness to the Thoracic. He is made that way and is
no more to blame for it than you are for having brown eyes instead of blue. The One-Track Man ¶ “Single-track minds” are characteristic
of this type. They get an idea or an attitude and it is there to stay. They
think the same things for many years and follow a few definite lines
of action most of their lives. But it is to be remembered in this connection
that this type often accomplishes more through his intensive concentration
than more versatile types. While they follow many by-paths
in search of their goal the Osseous sticks to the main track. The Born Specialist ¶ “This one thing I do,” is a motto of the
Osseous. They are the least versatile of any type and do not like to jump
from one kind of work to another. They prefer to do one thing at a time, do
it well and finish it before starting anything else. Because of this the
Osseous stars in
specialities. Dislikes Many Irons in the Fire ¶ The man who likes many irons in the fire
is never an Osseous. To have more than one problem before him at one time
makes him irritable, upset and exasperated. The Most Dependable Type ¶ The unchangingness which handicaps the
Osseous in so many ways is responsible for one very admirable trait.
That trait is dependability. The Osseous is reliable. He can be taken at
his word more often than any other type, for he lives up to it with greater
care. Always on Time ¶ When an Osseous person says, “I will meet
you at four o’clock at the corner of Main and Market,” he will arrive
at Main and Market at _four_ o’clock. He will not come straggling along,
nor plead interruptions, nor give excuses. He will be on the exact spot
at the exact hour. In this he is again a contrast to the first
two types. An Alimentive man will roll into the offing at a quarter, or
more likely, a half hour past the time, smilingly apologize and be so naive
you forgive and let it go at that. The Thoracic will arrive anywhere from five
after four to six o’clock, drown you in a thrilling narrative of just
how it all happened, and never give you a chance to voice your anger
till he has smoothed it all out of you. An Exacting Man ¶ But the Osseous is disdainful of such tactics
and you had better beware of using them on him. He is dependable
himself and demands it of others–a little trait all of us have regarding
our own particular virtues. Likes Responsibility ¶ Responsibility, if it does not entail too
many different kinds of thought and work, is enjoyed by the Osseous. He can be given a task, a job, a position
and he will attend to it. Entrust him with a commission of any kind,
from getting you a certain kind of thread to discovering the North Pole,
and he will come pretty near carrying it out, if he undertakes it. Finishes What He Starts If an Osseous decides to do a piece of work
for you you can go ahead and forget all about it. No need to advise, urge,
watch, inspire, coax and cajole him to keep him at it. He prefers to
keep at a thing if he starts it himself. You may have to hurry him but
you will not have to watch him in order to know he is sticking to his task.
This type starts few things but he brings those few to a pretty successful
conclusion. The Martyr of the Ages ¶ “Died for a cause” has been said of many
people, but those people have in every known instance been possessed of
a larger-than-average bony structure. ¶ The pure Alimentive seldom troubles his
head about causes. The Thoracic is the type that lives chiefly for
the pleasure of the moment and the adventures of life. The Muscular fights
hard and works hard for various movements. But it is the Osseous who dies for his beliefs. It is the Osseous or one who is largely of
this type who languishes in prison through long years, refusing to retract. He is enabled to do this because the ostracism,
jibes and criticism with which other types are finally cowed, have
little effect upon him. On the contrary, opposition of any kind whets his
determination and makes him keep on harder than ever. Takes the Opposite Side ¶ “If you want him to do a thing, tell him
to do the opposite,” is a well-known rule supposed to work with certain
kinds of people. You have wondered why it sometimes worked
and sometimes didn’t, but it is no mystery to the student of Human Analysis. When it worked, the person you tried it on
was an Osseous or one largely osseous in type; and when it didn’t he was
of some other type. “Contrary?” complained a man of a bony neighbor
recently, “Contrary is his middle name.” “I am open to conviction but I would like
to see the man who could convince me!” is always said by a man whose
type you will be sure to recognize. An “Againster” ¶ “I don’t know what it is but I’m against
it,” is the inside mental attitude of the extremely raw-boned, angular
man or woman. They often, unconsciously, refrain from making
a decision about a thing till the other fellow makes his. That settles
it; they take the other side. Think back over your school-days and call
to mind the visage and bodily shape of the boy who was always on the opposite
side, who just naturally disagreed, who “stood out” against the others.
He was a bony lad every time. Remember the “Fatty” with a face like a full
moon? Did he do such things? He did not. He was amenable, easy-going,
good natured, and didn’t care how the discussion came out, so
long as it didn’t delay the lunch hour. Remember the boy or girl who had the pick
of the school for company whenever there was a party, who danced well
and was so sparkling that you always felt like a pebble competing against
a diamond when they were around? That boy or girl had a high chest,
or high color, or a high-bridged nose–and usually all three. But the one you couldn’t persuade, who couldn’t
be won over, who refused to give in, who held up all the unanimous
votes till everybody was disgusted with him, and who rather gloried
in the distinction–that boy had big bones and a square jaw–the proof
that he was a combination of the Osseous and Muscular types. The Human Balance Wheel ¶ To keep the rest of the world from running
away with itself, to prevent precipitous changes in laws, customs
and traditions, has always been one of the functions performed for society
by the bony people. These people are seldom over-persuaded, and
being able to retain a perpendicular position while the rest of the
world is being swayed this way and that, they act as society’s balance
wheel. The Osseous changes after a while, but it
is a long while, and by the time he does, the rest of the world has marched
on to something new which he opposes in its turn. Wears Same Style Ten Years ¶ Even the clothes worn by this type tell
the same story. Styles may come and styles may go, but the Osseous goes
on forever wearing the same lines and the same general fashions he
wore ten years before. If you will recall the men who continued wearing
loose, roomy suits long after the “skin-tight” fashions came in, or
the women who kept to long, full skirts when short ones were the vogue
you will note that every one of them had large joints or long faces. Bony people find a kind of collar or hat that
just suits, and to that hat and that collar they will stick for twenty
years! Disdains the Fashions ¶ In every city, neighborhood and country
crossroads there is always somebody who defies the styles of today by
wearing the styles of ten years ago. Every such person is a bony individual–never
under any circumstances a moon-faced, round-bodied one. In every case
you will find that his face is longer, his nose is longer, or his jaw
and hands are longer than the average–all Osseous indications. When He is Rich ¶ The bony man’s adherence to one style or
to one garment is not primarily because he wishes to save money,
though saving money is an item that he never overlooks. It is due rather
to his inability to change anything about himself in accordance
with outside influence until a long time has elapsed. Doesn’t Spend Money Lavishly ¶ The Osseous is, as stated at the head of
this chapter, a “stayer” and this applies to everything he wears, thinks,
says, believes, and to the way he carries on every activity of his life. No matter how rich he may be he will not buy
one kind of car today and another tomorrow, nor one house this week
and another in six weeks. He uses his money, as all of us do, to maintain
his type-habits and to give freer rein to them, not to change them
to any extent. This type likes sameness. He likes to “get acquainted”
with a thing. He never takes up fads and is the most conservative
of all types. Unlike the Thoracic, he avoids extremes in everything
and dislikes anything savoring of the “showy” or conspicuous. Not a Social Star ¶ Because he dislikes display, refuses to
yield to the new fangled fashions of polite society and finds it hard
to adapt himself to people, the man of this type is seldom a social success. He is the least of a “ladies’ man” of all
the types. The Osseous woman is even less disposed to social life than
the Osseous man because the business and professional demands, which compel
men of this type to mingle with their fellows, are less urgent
with her. Likes the Same Food ¶ The same “yesterday, today and forever”
is the kind of food preferred by this type. He seldom orders anything new.
The tried and true things he has eaten for twenty-five years are his
favorites and it is almost impossible to win him away from them. “I have
had bread and milk for supper every Sunday night for thirty years,”
a bony man said to us not long ago. Means What He Says ¶ The Osseous does not flatter and seldom
praises. Even when he would like to, the words do not come easily. But
when he does give you a compliment you may know he means it. He is
incisive and specific–a little too much so to grace modern social
intercourse where so much is froth. A Man of Few Words ¶ A man of few words is always and invariably
a man whose bones are large for his body. The fat man uses up a
great many pleasant, suave, merry, harmless words; the Thoracic inundates
you with conversation; the Muscular argues, declares and states; but
the Osseous alone is sparing of his words. The Hoarder ¶ Bony people are never lavish with anything.
They do not waste anything nor throw anything away. These are the people
who save things and store them away for years against the day when they
may find some use for them. When they do part with them it is always
to pass them on “where they will do some one some good.” Careful of Money ¶ You never saw a stingy fat man in your
life. Imagine a two-hundred-pound miser! Neither have you
ever seen a really stingy man who was red-faced and high-chested. Nor have
you ever found a real Muscular who was a “tightwad.” But you have known some people who were pretty
close with their money. And every one of them was inclined to boniness. When He is Poor ¶ Bony men are seldom “broke” for they are
more careful of expenditures than any other type. Even when they receive
small salaries this type of person always has something laid by. But the
extreme Osseous never makes a million. The same caution which prevents
his spending much money also prevents the plunges that make big money. ¶ The Osseous cares more for money than any
one else. This is what has enabled him, when combined with some other
type, to be so successful in banking–a business where you risk the other
man’s money, not your own. The extreme Osseous is never lax or extravagant
with his money no matter how much he has. He never believes in paying
any more for a thing than is necessary. Take note of the men who carry
purses for silver instead of letting their change lie loose in their
pockets. They are bony every time! Fat people and florid people are the
ones who let their greenbacks fall on the floor while paying the cashier! Fear of the Future ¶ “The rainy day” doesn’t worry the fat people
or the florid ones, but it is seldom out of the consciousness of the
bony men and women. So they cling to their twenty-dollar-a-week clerkships
for years because they are afraid to tackle anything entailing risk. Pays His Bills ¶ “I had rather trust a bony man than any
other kind,” is what the credit experts have told us. “Other things
being equal, he is the most reliable type in money matters, and pays his
bills more promptly.” ¶ The bony man is one who seldom approaches
the credit man, however. He usually has enough to get the few things he
really wants and if not he waits till he has. Extremely bony husbands give their wives smaller
allowances in proportion to their total income than any
other type, and because they are systematic themselves they are more likely
to ask for reports and itemizations as to where it goes. The fat husbands and the florid husbands are
the ones who give their wives their last cent and never ask what becomes
of it. The Repressed Man ¶ The Osseous man or woman is always somewhat
repressed. Unlike the Thoracic, who uncorks and bubbles like a champagne
bottle, he keeps the lid on his feelings. Bony people are always more reticent than
others. They invariably tell less of their private or personal affairs.
One may live across the hall from a bony man for years without knowing
much about him. He is as secretive as the Thoracic is confiding and
as guarded as the Alimentive is naive. Loyal to His Few Friends ¶ “Once your friend always your friend” can
be said about the Osseous oftener than any other type. ¶ The Osseous does not make friends easily
and is not a “mixer” but keeps his friends for many years. He “takes
to” very few people but is exceedingly loyal to those of his choice. The “Salt of the Earth” ¶ People of the Osseous type say little,
they do little for you and they do not gush–but they are always there when
you need them and “always the same.” They write few letters to you when
away, and use few words and little paper when they do. They are likely
to fill every page, to write neatly, to waste no margins and to avoid
flourishes. Their letters seldom require an extra stamp. Plans Ahead Foresight, laying plans far into the future,
and keeping an eye out for breakers ahead, financially and otherwise,
are tendencies which come natural to the Osseous. He does not like to wait until the last moment
to do a thing. He dislikes unexpectedness and emergencies of
any kind. He is always prepared. For instance a bony person will
think out every move of a long journey before boarding his train. Weeks in
advance he will have the schedule marked and put away in his coat pocket–and
he knows just which coat he is going to wear too! The Longest Lived ¶ The Osseous lives longer than any other
type, for two reasons. The first is that his lack of “nerves” saves him
from running down his batteries. He seldom becomes excited and does
not exhaust himself in emotional orgies. The second is that he habitually under-eats–usually
because he does not care so much for food as the first three types,
but quite often because he prefers to save the money. People He Dislikes ¶ The bony man does not like people who try
to speed him up, hurry him, or make him change his habits. Flashy people
irritate him. But his worst aversions are the people who try to
dictate to him. This type can not be driven. The only way to handle him
is to let him think he is having his own way. Likes the Submissive ¶ Amenable people who never interfere with
him yet lend themselves to his plans, desires and eccentricities are
the favorites of this type. Diseases He is Most Susceptible To ¶ No diseases can be said to strike the Osseous
more frequently than any other type. But moodiness, fear–especially financial
fear–long-sustained hatreds and resentments, and lack of change are indirectly
responsible for those diseases which bring about the end, in the
majority of cases. Music He Likes ¶ Martial, classical music and ballads are
favorites with the Osseous. Old-time tunes and songs appeal to him strongly. Jazz, which the Alimentive loves, is disliked
by most bony people. Reading He Prefers ¶ Only a few kinds of reading, a few favorite
subjects and a few favorite authors are indulged in by this type. He will read as long as twenty-five years
on one subject, master it and ignore practically everything else. When he
becomes enamored of an author he reads everything he writes. Reading that points directly to some particular
thing he is really interested in makes up many of his books and
magazines. He is the kind of man who reads the same newspaper
for half a century. Physical Assets ¶ His great endurance, capacity for withstanding
hardship, indifference to weather, and his sane, under-eating habits
are the chief physical assets of this type. Physical Liabilities ¶ This type has no physical characteristics
which can be called liabilities except the tendency to chronic
diseases. Even in this he runs true to form–slow to acquire and slow
to cure. His Favorite Sports ¶ Hiking and golf are the favorite sports
of this type because these demand no sudden spurts of energy. He likes
them because they can be carried on with deliberation and independence.
He does not care for any sport involving team work or quick responses
to other players. Except when combined with the Thoracic type he especially
avoids tennis. Favorite Entertainments ¶ Serious plays in which his favorite actors
appear are the entertainments preferred by this type. He
cares least of all for vaudeville. Social Assets ¶ The Osseous has no traits which can properly
be called social assets. His general uprightness comes nearest to standing
him in good stead socially, however. Social Liabilities ¶ Stiffness, reticence, physical awkwardness
and the inability to pose or to praise are the chief social handicaps
of this type. Emotional Assets ¶ The Osseous is not emotional and can not
be said to possess any assets that are purely emotional. Emotional Liabilities ¶ The lack of emotional fervor and enthusiasm
prevents this type from impressing others. Business Assets ¶ Keeping his word, orderliness and system
are the chief business assets of this type. Business Liabilities ¶ A disinclination to mix, the inability
to adapt himself to his patrons and a tendency to hold people too rigidly
to account are the business handicaps of the Osseous. Domestic Strength ¶ Constancy and faithfulness are his chief
domestic assets. Domestic Weaknesses ¶ Tightness with money, a tendency to be
too exacting and dictatorial, and to fail to show affection are the things
that frequently prevent marriage for the Osseous and endanger it when
he does marry. Should Aim At ¶ The Osseous should aim at being more adjustable
to people and to his environment in general. He should try to take
a greater interest in others and then _show_ it. Should Avoid ¶ Indifference and the display of it, solitude
and too few interests are things the Osseous needs to avoid. His Strong Points ¶ Dependability, honesty, economy, faithfulness
and his capacity for finishing what he starts are the strongest
points of this type. His Weakest Points ¶ Stubbornness, obstinacy, slowness, over-cautiousness,
coldness and a tendency to stinginess are the weakest links
in people of the extreme Osseous type. How to Deal with this Type Socially ¶ There is little to be done with the Osseous
when you meet him socially except to let him do what he wants to do. Don’t interfere with him if you want him to
like you. How to Deal with this Type in Business ¶ As an employee, give him responsibility
and then let him alone to do it his way. Then keep your hands off. Don’t give him constant advice; don’t try
to drive him. Let him be as systematic as he likes. When dealing with him in other business ways
rely on him and let him know you admire his dependability. _Remember, the distinguishing marks of the
Osseous, in the order of their importance, are PROPORTIONATELY LARGE
BONES FOR THE BODY, PROMINENT JOINTS and A LONG FACE. Any person
who has these is largely of the Osseous type no matter what other types
may be included in his makeup._ CHAPTER V The Cerebral Type “The Thinker” All those in whom the nervous system is more
highly developed than any other are Cerebrals. This system consists of the brain and nerves.
The name comes from the cerebrum or thinking part of the brain. Meditation, imagining, dreaming, visualizing
and all voluntary mental processes take place in the cerebrum, or brain,
as we shall hereinafter call it. The brain is the headquarters of
the nervous system–its “home office”–just as the stomach is the home office
of the Alimentive system and the heart and lungs the home office of
the Thoracic. Your Freight System ¶ The Thoracic system may be compared to
a great freight system, with each of its tributaries–from the main trunk
arteries down to the tiniest blood vessels–starting from the heart
and carrying its cargo of blood to every part of the body by means of
the power furnished by the lungs. Your Telegraph System ¶ But the nervous system is more like an
intricate telegraph system. Its network of nerves runs from every outlying
point of the body into the great headquarters of the brain, carrying
sense messages notifying us of everything heard, seen, touched, tasted or
smelled. As soon as the brain receives a message from
any of the five senses it decides what to do about it and if action
is decided on, sends its orders back over the nerve wires to the muscles
telling them what action to perform. Your Working Agents ¶ This latter fact–that the muscles are
the working agents of the body–also explains why the Muscular type
is naturally more active than any of the others. Source of Your Raw Materials ¶ The body may be compared to a perfectly
organized transportation system and factory combined. The Alimentive
system furnishes the raw materials for all the systems to work on. Stationary Equipment ¶ The bones of the body are like the telegraph
poles, the bridges and structures for the protection and permanence
of the work carried on by the other systems of the body. Now poles, bridges and structures are less
movable, less alterable than any of the other parts of a transportation
system, and likewise the bony element in man makes him less alterable in
every other way than he would otherwise be. A predominance of it in any
individual indicates a preponderance of this immovable tendency in
his nature. Mind and matter are so inseparably bound up
together in man’s organism that it is impossible to say just where mind
ends and matter begins. But this we know: that even the mind of the bony
person partakes of the same unbending qualities that are found in the
bones of his body. “Every Cell Thinks” ¶ Thomas A. Edison, as level-headed and unmystical
a scientist as lives, says, “Every cell in us thinks.” Human Analysis
proves to us that something very near this is the case for it
shows how the habitual mental processes of every individual are always
“off the same piece of goods” as his body. [Illustration 9: Cerebral the “thinker”] Thus the fat man’s mind acts as his body acts–evenly,
unhurriedly, easefully and comfortably. The florid man’s
mind has the same quickness and resourcefulness that distinguish all his
bodily processes. The muscular man’s mind acts in the same strenuous
way that his body acts, while the bony man’s brain always has an immovable
quality closely akin to the boniness of his body. He is not necessarily a “bonehead,” but this
phrase, like “fathead,” is no accident. The Large Head on the Small Body ¶ As pointed out before, the larger any organ
or system the more will it tend to express itself. So, the large-headed,
small-bodied man runs more to mental than to physical activities, and
is invariably more mature in his thinking. (See Chart 9) Conversely, the
Alimentive type gets its traits from that elemental stage in human
development when we did little but get and assimilate food, and when thinking
was of the simplest form. In those days man was more physical than mental;
he had a large stomach but a small head. So today we see in the pure Alimentive type
people who resemble their Alimentive ancestors. They have the same proportionately
large stomach and proportionately small head,–with the
stomach-system dominating their thoughts, actions and lives. The Cerebral is the exact opposite of this.
He has a top-heavy head, proportionately large for his body, and a
proportionately undeveloped stomach system. His Small Assimilative System ¶ The extreme Cerebral differs from other
types chiefly in the fact that while his head is unusually large compared
to the body, his alimentive, thoracic, muscular and bony systems are smaller
and less developed than the average. The latter fact is due to the
same law which causes the Alimentive to have a large body and a small
head. Nature is a wonderful efficiency engineer. She provides only as
much space as is required for the functioning of any particular organ, giving
extra space only to those departments that need it. The Cerebral-Alimentive is the combination
which makes most of the “magnates” and the self-made millionaires.
Such a man has all the Alimentive’s desires for the luxurious comforts
and “good things of life,” combined with sufficient brains to
enable him to make the money necessary to get them. Nature doesn’t give the pure Alimentive a
large skull because he doesn’t need it for the housing of his proportionately
small brain, but concentrates on giving him a big stomach fitted
with “all modern conveniences.” On the other hand, the head
of the Cerebral is large because his brain is large. The skull which
is pliable and unfinished at birth grows to conform to the size and shape
of the brain as the glove takes on the shape of the hand inside it. Stomach vs. Brain ¶ Because the Alimentive and Cerebral systems
are farthest removed from each other, evolutionally, a large brain and
a large stomach are a very unusual combination. Such an individual would
be a combination of the Alimentive and Cerebral types and would have
the Alimentive’s fat body with a large highbrow head of the Cerebral.
The possession of these two highly developed but opposite kinds of systems
places their owner constantly in the predicament of deciding
between the big meal he wants and the small one he knows he should have
for good brain work. We are so constructed that brain and stomach–each
of which demands an extra supply of blood when performing its
work–can not function with maximum efficiency simultaneously. Why Light Lunches ¶ When your stomach is busy digesting a big
meal your brain takes a vacation. This little fact is responsible
for millions of light luncheons daily. The strenuous manual worker
can empty a full dinner pail and profit by it but the brain worker
long ago discovered that a heavy midday meal gave him a heavy brain for
hours afterwards. Clear Thinking and a Clear Stomach ¶ Clear thinking demands a clear stomach
because an empty stomach means that the blood reserves so necessary to vivid
thinking are free to go to the brain. Without good blood coursing at
a fairly rapid rate through the brain no man can think keenly or concentratedly.
This explains why you think of so many important things when
your stomach is empty that never occur to you when your energy is being
monopolized by digestion. Heavy Dinners and Heavy Speeches ¶ All public speakers have learned that a
heavy dinner means a heavy speech. Elbert Hubbard’s rule when on his speaking
tours was one every orator should follow. “Ten dollars extra if I have
to eat,” said Fra Elbertus–a far cry from the days when we
“fed up” the preacher at Sunday dinner with the expectation of hearing
a better sermon! Uses His Head ¶ Just as assimilation is the favorite activity
of the Alimentive type, head work is the favorite activity of the
large-headed Cerebral. He is so far removed, evolutionally, from the stomach
stage that his stomach is as much a remnant with him as the brain
is a rudiment with the extreme Alimentive. The extra blood supply which nature furnishes
to any over-developed part of the body also tends to encourage him in
thinking, just as the same condition encourages the fat man in eating. Forgets to Eat ¶ An Alimentive never forgets dinner time. But the Cerebral is so much more interested
in food for his brain than food for his body that he can go without his
meals and not mind it. He is likely to have a book and a cracker at
his meals–and then forget to eat the cracker! Physical Sensitivity ¶ We are “mental” in proportion to the sensitiveness
of our mental organization. The Cerebral possesses the most
highly developed brain center of any type and is therefore more sensitive
to all those stimuli which act upon the mind. His whole body bespeaks it. The fineness of
his features is in direct contrast to some of the other types. The unusual
size of his brain denotes a correspondingly intricate organization
of nerves, for the nerves are tiny elongations of the brain. The intellectual sensitiveness of any individual
can be accurately estimated by noting the comparative size of
his brain and body. His Triangular Head and Face ¶ A triangle is the geometrical figure approximated
by the Cerebral’s front face and head. If he is a pure, extreme Cerebral a triangle
is again what you are reminded of when you look at his head from
the side, for his head stands on a small neck, his forehead stands out at
the top, while his back head is long. These bring the widest part of his
head nearer the top than we find it in other types. Delicate Hands ¶ A thin, delicate hand denotes a larger-than-average
Cerebral element. (See Chart 10) Smooth Fingers ¶ What have long been known as “smooth fingers”
are typical of the Cerebral. These are not to be confused with
the fat, pudgy babyish fingers of the Alimentive, for though the
latter’s fingers are smooth around, they do not present straight outlines
at the sides. They puff out between the joints. Smooth fingers are characteristic of the extreme
Cerebral type. They are called this because their outlines run straight
up and down. The joints of the Alimentive finger (See Chart
2) mark the narrowest places owing to the fact that the joints are
not changeable. In the Osseous fingers (See Chart 8) the opposite
is true. The joints mark the widest spots and the spaces between are
sunken. [Illustration 10: A: Typical CEREBRAL face
B: Typical CEREBRAL hand] The fingers of the Thoracic are inclined to
be pointed like his head, while the Muscular’s fingers are square at
the end and look the power they possess. ¶ But the Cerebral has fingers unlike any
of these. There is no fat to make them pudgy and no muscle to make them
firm. Neither are there large joints to make them knotty. Their outlines
therefore run in almost straight lines and the whole hand presents
a more frail, aesthetic appearance. Meditation His Keynote ¶ Thinking, contemplating, reflecting–all
the mental processes coming under the head of “meditation”–constitute
the keynote of this type. The Alimentive lives to eat, the Thoracic
to feel, the Muscular to act, the Osseous to stabilize, but the Cerebral
lives to meditate. Air Castles ¶ He loves to plan, imagine, dream day-dreams,
visualize and go over and over in his mind the manifold possibilities,
probabilities and potentialities of many things. When he carries this to extremes–as the person
with a huge head and tiny body is likely to do–he often overlooks
the question of the practicability of the thing he is planning.
He inclines to go “wild-catting,” to dream dreams that are impossible
of fruition. Thought for Thought’s Sake ¶ He will sit by the hour or by the day thinking
out endless ultimates, for the sheer pleasure it gives him. Other
men blame him, criticise him and ridicule him for this and for the most
part he does fail of the practical success by which the efficient American
measures everything. But the fact must never be forgotten that
the world owes its progress to the men who could see beyond their nose, who
could conceive of things no one had ever actually seen. This type, more than any other, has been the
innovator in all forms of human progress. The Dreamer ¶ “Everything accomplished starts with the
dream of it,” is a saying we all know to be true. Yet we go on forever
giving all the big prizes to the doers. But the man who can only dream
lives in a very hostile world. His real world is his thoughts but whenever
he steps out of them into human society he feels a stranger and he is
one. Doesn’t Fit ¶ The world of today is ruled by people who
accomplish. “Putting it over,” “delivering the goods,” “getting it
across,” are a part of our language because they represent the standards
of the average American today. The Cerebral is as much out of place in such
an environment as a fish is on dry land. He knows it and he shows it.
He doesn’t know what the other kind are driving at and they know so little
of what he is driving at that they have invented a special name for
him–the “nut.” Doing isn’t his line. He prefers the pleasures
of “thinking over” to all the “putting over” in the world. This type
usually is a failure because he takes it all out in dreaming without ever
doing the things necessary to make his dream come true. A “Visionary” ¶ These predilections for overlooking the
obvious, the tangible and the necessary elements in everyday existence tend
to make of the Cerebral what he is so often called–a “visionary.” For instance, he will build up in his mind
the most imposing superstructure for an invention and confidently
tell you “it will make millions,” but forget to inform himself on
such essential questions as “will it work?” “Is it transportable?” or
“Is there any demand for it?” Ahead of His Time ¶ “He was born ahead of his time” applies
oftenest to a man of this type. He has brains to see what the world needs
and not infrequently sees how the world could get it. But he is so averse
to action himself that unless active people take up his schemes they
seldom materialize. What We Owe to the Dreamers ¶ Men in whom the Cerebral type predominated
anticipated every step man has made in his political, social, individual,
industrial, religious and economic evolution. They have seen it decades
and sometimes centuries in advance. But they were always ridiculed at
first. The Mutterings of Morse ¶ History is replete with the stories of
unappreciated genius. In Washington, D. C., you will have pointed out
to you a great elm, made historic by Samuel Morse, inventor of the
telegraph. He could not make the successful people of his day give him
a hearing, but he was so wrapped up in his invention that he used to
sit under this tree whenever the weather permitted, and explain all about
it to the down-and-outers and any one else who would stop. “Listen to
the mutterings of that poor old fool” said the wise ones as they hurried
by on the other side of the street. But today people come from everywhere
to see “The Famous Morse Elm” and do homage to the great mind that
invented the telegraph. “Langley’s Folly” ¶ Today we fly from continent to continent
and air travel is superseding land and water transportation whenever great
speed is in demand. A man receives word that his child is dangerously
ill; he steps into an airplane and in less than half the time it
would take trains or motors to carry him, alights at his own door. Commerce, industry, war and the future of
whole nations are being revolutionized by this man-made miracle. Yet
it is but a few short years since S. P. Langley was sneered at from one
end of this country to the other because he stooped to the “folly” of
inventing a “flying machine.” The Trivial Telephone ¶ Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.
But it was many years before he could induce anybody to finance
it, though some of the wealthiest, and therefore supposedly wisest,
business men of the day were asked to do so. None of them would risk
a dollar on it. Even after it had been tested at the Centennial Exposition
in Philadelphia and found to work perfectly, its possibilities
were so little realized that for a long while no one could be found to
furnish the funds necessary to place it upon the market. The Wizardry of Wireless ¶ Then after the world had become accustomed
to transacting millions of dollars worth of business daily over the once
despised telegraph and telephone it took out its doubts on Marconi
and his “wireless telegraphy.” “It’s impossible,” they said.
“Talk without wires? Never!” But now the radio needles pierce the blue
from San Diego to Shanghai and from your steamer in mid-ocean you can say
good night to your loved one in Denver. Frank Bacon’s Play ¶ Ideas always have to go begging at first,
and the greater the idea the rougher the sledding. The most successful play ever put on in America
was “Lightnin’,” written by Frank Bacon, a typical Cerebral-Osseous.
It ran every night for three years in New York City. It has made a million
people happy and a million dollars for its sponsors. But when Mr. Bacon,
who also plays the title role, took it to the New York producers they
refused it a try-out. But because he had faith in his dream and persisted,
his name and his play have become immortal. An Ideal Combination ¶ The ideal combination is a dreamer who
can DO or a doer who knows the power of a DREAM. Thinking and acting–almost
every individual is doing too much of one and too little of the other! The World’s Two Classes ¶ The world is divided roughly into these
two classes: those who act without thinking (and as a result are often
in jail); and those who think without acting (and as a result are
often in the poorhouse). To be a Success ¶ To be a successful individual today you
have got to dream and then DO; plan and then PRODUCE; contemplate and then
CONSTRUCT; think it out and then WORK it out. If you do the latter at the expense of the
former you are doomed to work forever for other people, to play some other
man’s game. If you do the former at the expense of the latter you are
doomed to know only the fringes of life, never to be taken seriously
and never to achieve. Pitfalls for Dreamers ¶ If you are inclined to take your pleasure
out in cerebrating instead of creating; if it suffices you to see a thing
in your imagination whether it ever comes to pass or not, you
are at a decided disadvantage in this hustling world; and you will never
be a success. Pitfalls for the Doer ¶ On the other hand if you are content to
do what other men dream about and never have dreams of your own you will
probably always have a berth but will never have a million. You will exist
but you will never know what it is to live. The Hungry Philosopher ¶ The extreme Cerebral can sit on a park
bench with an empty purse and an empty stomach and get as much pleasure
out of reflecting on the “whichness of the what and the whitherness
of the wherefore” as an Alimentive gets out of a planked steak. Needless
to say, each is an enigma to the other. Yet most people imagine
that because both are human and both walk on their hind legs they are
alike. They are no more alike than a cow and a canary. His Frail Body ¶ The extreme Cerebral type finds it difficult
to do things because, as we have seen, he is deficient in muscle–one
of the vital elements upon which activity and accomplishment are based.
This type has little muscle, little bone, and little fat. Deficient in “Horse Power” ¶ He is not inactive for the same reason
that the Alimentive is; his stomach processes do not slow him down. But
his muscles are so undeveloped that he has little inward urge
toward activity and little force back of his movements. His heart and
lungs are small, so that he also lacks “steam” and “horse power.” He prefers to sit rather than to move, exactly
as the Muscular prefers to be “up and doing” rather than to sit still. The Man of Futile Movements ¶ Did you ever look on while a pure Cerebral
man tried to move a kitchen stove? Ever ask the dreamer in your house
to bring down a trunk from the attic? Will you ever forget the almost human perversity
with which that stove and that trunk resisted him; or how amusing
it looked to see a grown man outwitted at every turn by an inert mass? “I have carried on a life-long feud with inanimate
things,” a pure Cerebral friend remarked to us recently. “I
have a fight on my hands every time I attempt to use a pair of scissors,
a knife and fork, a hammer or a collar button.” His Jerky Walk ¶ Because he is short the Cerebral takes
short steps. Because he lacks muscle he lacks a powerful stride. As a result
he has a walk that is irregular and sometimes jerky. When he walks slowly this jerk is not apparent,
but when hurried it is quite noticeable. Is Lost in Chairs ¶ The Cerebral gets lost in the same chair
that is itself lost under the large, spreading Osseous; and for the same
reason. Built for the average, chairs are as much too large for
the Cerebral as they are too small for the big bony man. So the Cerebral’s
legs dangle and his arms don’t reach. Dislikes Social Life ¶ Though a most sympathetic friend, the Cerebral
does not make many friends and does not care for many. He is
too abstract to add to the gaiety of social gatherings, for these are
based on the enjoyment of the concrete. Enjoys the Intellectuals ¶ Readers, thinkers, writers–intellectuals
like himself–are the kinds of people the Cerebral enjoys most. Another reason why he has few friends is because
these people, being in the great minority, are not easy to find. Ignores the Ignorant ¶ People who let others do their thinking
for them and those who are not aware of the great things going on in world
movements, are not popular with this type. He sometimes has a secret
contempt for them and ignores them as completely as they ignore him. Avoids the Limelight ¶ Modesty and reserve, almost as marked in
the men as in the women, characterize this extreme type. They do things
of great moment sometimes–invent something or write something
extraordinary–but even then they try to avoid being lionized. They prefer the shadows rather than the spotlight.
Thus they miss many of the good things less brainy and more aggressive
people gain. But it does no good to explain this to a Cerebral.
He enjoys retirement and is constantly missing opportunities because he
refuses to “mix.” Cares Little for Money ¶ Friends mean something to the Cerebral,
fame sometimes means much but money means little. In this he is the exact
opposite of the Osseous, to whom the pecuniary advantages or disadvantages
of a thing are always significant. The pure Cerebral finds it difficult to interest
himself in his finances. He seldom counts his change. He
will go away from his room leaving every cent he owns lying on the dresser–and
then forget to lock the door! This type of person almost never asks for
a raise. He is too busy dreaming dreams to plan what he will do in
his old age. He prefers staying at the same job with congenial associates
to finding another even if it paid more. Very Often Poor ¶ Since we get only what we go after in this
world, it follows that the Cerebral is often poor. To make money one
must want money. Competition for it is so keen that only those who want
it badly and work with efficiency ever get very much of it. The Cerebral takes so little interest in money
that he gets lost in the shuffle. Not until he wakes up some morning
with the poorhouse staring him in the face does he give it serious consideration.
And then he does not do much about it. Almost Never Rich ¶ History shows that few people of the pure
Cerebral type ever became rich. Even the most brilliant gave so much
more thought to their mission than the practical ways and means that they
were usually seriously handicapped for the funds necessary to its
materialization. Madame Curie, co-discoverer of radium, said
to be the greatest living woman of this type, is world-famous and has
done humanity a noble service. But her experiments were always carried
on against great disadvantages because she had not the financial
means to purchase more than the most limited quantities of the precious
substance. About Clothes ¶ Clothes are almost the last thing the Cerebral
thinks about. As we have seen, all the other types have decided
preferences as to their clothes–the Alimentive demands comfort, the
Thoracic style, the Muscular durability and the Osseous sameness–but
the extreme Cerebral type says “anything will do.” So we often
see him with a coat of one color, trousers of another and a hat of another,
with no gloves at all and his tie missing. Often Absent-Minded ¶ We have always said people were “absent-minded”
when their minds were absent from what they were doing. This often
applies to the Cerebral for he is capable of greater concentration than
other types; also he is so frequently compelled to do things in which
he has no interest that his mind naturally wanders to the things he cares
about. A Cerebral professor whom we know sometimes
appeared before his Harvard classes in bedroom slippers. A Thoracic would
not be likely to let his own brother catch him in his! Writes Better than He Talks ¶ The poor talker sometimes surprises us
by being a good writer. Such a one is usually of the Cerebral type. He likes to think out every phase of a thing
and put it into just the right words before giving it to the world.
So, many a Cerebral who does little talking outside his intimate circle
does a good deal of surreptitious writing. It may be only the
keeping of a diary, jotting down memoranda or writing long letters to
his friends, but he will write something. Some of the world’s greatest ideas
have come to light first in the forgotten manuscripts of people of
this type who died without showing their writings to any one. Evidently
they did not consider them of sufficient importance or did not care as
much about publishing them as about putting them down. An Inveterate Reader ¶ Step into the reference rooms of your city
library on a summer’s day and you will stand more chance of finding
examples of this extreme type there than in any other spot. You may have thought these extreme types are
difficult to locate, since the average American is a combination. But
it is easy to find any of them if you look in the right places. In every case you will find them in the very
places where a study of Human Analysis would tell you to look for
them. Where to Look for Pure Types ¶ When you wish to find some pure Alimentives,
go to a restaurant that is famous for its rich foods. When you want
to see several extreme Thoracics, drop into any vaudeville show and
take your choice from the actors or from the audience. When you are
looking for pure Musculars go to a boxing match or a prize fight and you
will be surrounded by them. When looking for the Osseous attend a convention
of expert accountants, bankers, lumbermen, hardware merchants or
pioneers. All these types appear in other places and
in other vocations, but they are certain to be present in large numbers
any day in any of the above-named places. But when you are looking for this interesting
little extreme thinker-type you must go to a library. We
specify the reference room of the library because those who search for fiction,
newspapers and magazines are not necessarily of the pure
type. And we specify a day in summer rather than in winter so that you will
be able to select your subjects from amongst people who are there
in spite of the weather rather than because of it. Interested in Everything ¶ “I never saw a book without wanting to
read it,” said a Cerebral friend to us the other day. This expresses
the interest every person of this type has in the printed page. “I never
see a library without wishing I had time to go there and stay till
I had read everything in it.” The Book Worm ¶ So it is small wonder that such a one becomes
known early in life as a “book worm.” As a little child he takes readily
to reading and won’t take to much else. Because we all learn quickly
what we like, he is soon devouring books for older heads. “Why won’t
he run and play like other children?” wails Mother, and “That boy ought
to be made to join the ball team,” scolds Father; but “that boy” continues
to keep his nose in a book. He can talk on almost any subject–when he
will–and knows pretty well what is going on in the world at an age when
other boys are oblivious to everything but gymnasiums and girls. Old for His Years ¶ The “little old man” or “little old woman”
of ten is always a Cerebral child. The Alimentives are the babies of the
race and never entirely grow up no matter how many years they live.
But the Cerebral is born old. From infancy he shows more maturity than
other children. The “Teacher’s Pet” ¶ His studiousness and tractableness lead
to one reward in childhood, though it often costs him dear as a man. He
usually becomes the teacher’s favorite and no wonder: he always
has his lessons, he gives her little trouble and is about all that keeps
many a teacher at her poorly paid post. Little Sense of Time ¶ The extreme Cerebral often has a deficient
sense of time. He is less conscious of the passage of the hours than
any other type. The Muscular and the Osseous often have an almost uncanny
time-sense, but the extreme Cerebral man often lacks it. Forgetting to
wind his watch or to consult it for hours when he does, is a familiar habit
of this type. We know a bride in Detroit whose flat looked
out on a bakery and a bookstore. She told us that she used to send
her Cerebral hubby across the street for the loaf of bread that was
found lacking just as they were ready to sit down to dinner–only to
wait hours and then have him come back with a book under his arm, no bread
and no realization of how long he had been gone. Inclined to be Unorthodox ¶ Other types tend to follow various religions–according
to the individual’s upbringing–but the Cerebral
composes a large percentage of the unorthodox. The Political Reformer ¶ Because all forms of personal combat are
distasteful to him the pure Cerebral does not go out and fight for reform
as often as the Muscular nor die for causes as often as the Osseous
types. But almost every Cerebral believes in extreme
reforms of one kind or another. He is a comparatively silent but
faithful member of clubs, leagues and other kinds of reform organizations.
He may never star in them. He seldom cares to. But his mite is
always ready when subscriptions are taken, even if he has to
go without breakfast for a week to make up for it. This type is usually sufficiently intelligent
to know the world needs reforming and sufficiently conscientious to
want to help to do it. He is not bound by traditions or customs as much
as other types but does more of his own thinking. Without the foresight
and faithfulness of the Cerebrals very few reforms could have started
or have lived to finish. The Social Nonconformist ¶ Ask any small-bodied, large-headed man
if he believes in the double standard of morals, anti-suffrage, eternal
punishment, saloons, or the “four hundred!” This little man with the big
head may not openly challenge you or argue with you when you stand
up for “things as they are,” for he is a peaceable chap–but he inwardly
smiles or sneers at what he considers your troglodyte ideas. He
sees a day coming when babies will be named for their fathers whether
the minister officiated or not; when the man who now talks about the
“good old days of a wide open saloon on every corner” will himself
be a hazy myth; and when society idlers will not be considered better
than people who earn their livings. The World’s Pathfinder ¶ The Cerebral therefore leads the world
in ideas. The world is managed by fat men, entertained by florid men, built
by muscular men, opposed by bony men, but is improved in the final analysis
by its thinking men. These thinkers have a difficult time of it.
They preach to deaf ears. And often they die in poverty. But at last
posterity comes around to their way of thinking, abandons the old ruts
and follows the trails they have blazed. Therefore many great thinkers
who were unknown while alive became famous after death. More often than
not, “Fame is the food of the tomb.” Indifference to Surroundings ¶ A wise man it was who said, “Let me see
a man’s surroundings and I will tell you what he is.” The Cerebral does
not really live in his house but in his head, and for that reason
does not feel as great an urge to decorate, amplify or even furnish
the place in which he dwells. Step into the room of any little-bodied large-headed
man and you will be struck by two facts–that he has fewer jimcracks
and more journals lying around than the rest of your friends. In the room of the Alimentive you will find
cushions, sofas and “eats;” in that of the Thoracic you will find colorful,
unusual things; the Muscular will have durable, solid, plain things;
the Osseous will have fewer of everything but what he does have
will be in order. But the pure Cerebral’s furnishings–if he
is responsible for them–will be an indifferent array, with no two pieces
matching. Furthermore, everything will be piled with newspapers,
magazines, books and clippings. Often Die Young ¶ “The good die young” is an old saying which
may or may not be true. But there is no doubt that the extreme Cerebral
type of individual often dies at an early age. The reason is clear. An efficient but _controlled_
assimilative system is the first requisite for long life, and
the pure Cerebral does not have an efficient one. Moreover, he is prone
to neglect what nutritive mechanism he does have, by irregular eating,
by being too poor to afford wholesome foods, and by forgetting to eat
at all. Physical Assets ¶ By reason of his deficient physicality
the Cerebral can not be said to possess any decided physical assets. But two
tendencies which help decidedly to prolong life are under-eating
and his refusal to dissipate. It has been said many times by the best known
experts that “more deaths are caused annually in America by over-eating
than by any other two causes.” Under-eating is a very necessary
precaution but the Cerebral carries it too far. The Cerebral, lacking a large alimentary system,
is not tempted to overload his stomach or overtax his vital
organs. And because he is a highly evolved type, possessing little of
the instincts which are at the bottom of most dissipation, he is not addicted
to late hours, wine, women or excitement. Diseases He is Most Susceptible To ¶ Nervous diseases of all kinds most frequently
afflict this type. His nervous system is supersensitive. It breaks
down more easily and more completely than that of the more elemental
types, just as a high-powered car is more easily wrecked than a truck. Music He Likes ¶ “Highbrow” music is kept alive mostly by
highbrows. While the other types cultivate a taste for grand opera or
simulate it because it is supposedly proper, the Cerebral really enjoys
it. In the top gallery at any good concert you will find many Cerebrals. Entertainment He Prefers ¶ The serious drama and educational lectures
are other favorite entertainments of the Cerebral. He cares little
for vaudeville, girl-shows, or clap-trap farces. The kind of program that keeps the fat man’s
smile spread from ear to ear takes the Cerebral to the box office for
his money. A Steady Patron at the Movies ¶ The Cerebral goes to the movies more than
any other type save the fat man, but not for the same reasons. The large-brained,
small-bodied man cares nothing for most of the recreations
with which the other types amuse themselves, so the theater is almost
his only diversion. It is oftentimes the only kind of entertainment
within the reach of his purse; and it deals with many different subjects,
in almost all of which the pure Cerebral has some interest. Don’t Laugh at Same Things ¶ But if you will notice next time you go
to a movie it will be clear to you that the fat people and the large-headed
people do not laugh at the same things. The pie-throwing and Cutey Coquette
that convulse the two-hundred-pounder fail to so much as turn
up the corners of the other man’s mouth. And the subtle things that amuse the Cerebral
go over the heads of the pure Alimentives. Cares for No Sports ¶ But the fat man and the large-brained man
have one trait in common. Neither of them cares for strenuous sports.
The fat man dislikes them because he is too “heavy on his feet.” The
Cerebral dislikes them because he is too heavy at the opposite extremity.
He expends what little energy he has in mental activities
so has none left for violent physical exertion. Likes Mental Games ¶ This type enjoys quiet games requiring
thought. Chess and checkers are favorites with them. The Impersonal ¶ The Cerebral is the most impersonal of
all types. While the Alimentive tends to measure everything from the standpoint
of what it can do for him personally, the Cerebral tends to think
more impersonally and to be interested in many things outside of his own
affairs. Lacks Pugnacity ¶ Primitive things of every kind are distasteful
to the Cerebral. The instincts of digestion, sex, hunting and pugnacity
are but little developed in him. He is therefore a man who
likes harmony, avoids coming to blows, and goes out of his way to keep
the peace. Such a man does not go hunting and seldom owns a gun. He dislikes
to kill or harm any creature. The Cleverest Crook ¶ The Cerebral is usually a naturally moral
person. But when lacking in conscience, either through bad training or
other causes, he occasionally turns to crime for his income. This is because
his physical frailty makes it difficult for him to do heavy work,
while his mentality enables him to think out ways and means of getting
a living without it. Though the clumsy criminal may belong to any
type, the cleverest crooks–those who defy detection for years–always
have a large element of the Cerebral in their makeup. Big Brains in Little Jobs ¶ There are two kinds of work in the world–head
work and hand work; mental and manual. If you can star in either,
life guarantees you a good living. But if you are good at neither you
are doomed to dependence. The Cerebral’s physical frailty unfits him
for the manual and unless he is school-or self-educated he becomes the
sorriest of all human misfits. He falls between the two and leads a precarious
existence working in the lighter indoor positions requiring the least
mentality. If you will keep your eyes open you will many times note that
the little waiter in the high class restaurant or hotel has a head
very large for his body. Such men are much better read, have a far greater
appreciation of art and literature and more natural refinement than
the porky patrons they serve. Social Assets ¶ A fine sense of the rights of others and
natural modesty and refinement are the chief social assets of
this type. Social Liabilities ¶ Lack of self-expression, too great reserve
and too much abstractness in conversation are the things that handicap
the Cerebral. His small stature and timid air also add to his appearance
of insignificance and cause him to be overlooked at social affairs. Emotional Assets ¶ Sympathy, gentleness and self-sacrifice
are other assets of this type. Emotional Liabilities ¶ A tendency to nervous excitement and to
a lack of balance are the chief emotional handicaps of this type. Business Assets ¶ This type has no traits which can properly
be called business assets. He dislikes business, is repelled by its standards
and has no place in any of its purely commercial branches. Business Liabilities ¶ His inability to “keep his feet on the
ground,” and his tendency to “live in the clouds” and to be generally impractical
unfit this type for business life. Domestic Strength ¶ Tenderness, consideration and idealism
are the chief domestic assets of the Cerebral type. Domestic Weakness ¶ Inability to provide for his family, incapacity
for making the money necessary to meet their needs, and his tendency
to spend the little he does have on impossible schemes, are what
wreck the domestic life of many splendid Cerebral men. Her inability
to make one dollar do the work of two is a serious handicap to the Cerebral
wife or mother. Should Aim At ¶ This man should aim at building up his
body and practicalizing his mental processes. Should Avoid ¶ The Cerebral should avoid shallow, ignorant
people, speculation and those situations that carry him farther away
from the real world. His Strong Points ¶ His thinking capacity, progressiveness,
unselfishness, and highly civilized instincts are the strongest points
of this type. His Weakest Points ¶ Impracticality, dreaminess, physical frailty
and his tendency to plan without doing, are the traits which stand
in the way of his success. How to Deal with this Type Socially ¶ Don’t expect him to be a social lion. Don’t
expect him to mingle with many. Invite him when there are to be a few
congenial souls, and if he wanders into the library leave him alone. How to Deal with this Type in Business ¶ Don’t employ this man for heavy manual
labor or where there is more arm work than head work. Give him mental positions
or none. If you are dealing with him as a tradesman,
resist the temptation to take advantage of his impracticality and don’t
treat him as if you thought money was everything. _Remember, the chief distinguishing marks
of the Cerebral, in the order of their importance, are the HIGH FOREHEAD
and a PROPORTIONATELY LARGE HEAD FOR THE BODY. Any person who has these
is largely of the Cerebral type no matter what other types may be included
in his makeup._ To Understand Combinations Determine which type PREDOMINATES in a subject. If there is any doubt in your mind about this
do these four things: 1st. Note the body build–which one of the
five body types (as shown in Charts 1, 3, 5, 7, 9) does he most resemble?
(In doing this it will aid you if you will note whether fat, bone or
muscle predominates in his bodily structure.) 2nd. Decide which of the five typical faces
his face most resembles. 3rd. Decide which of the five typical hands
his hands most resemble. 4th. If still undecided, note his voice, gestures
and movements and they will leave no doubt in your mind as to which
of these types comes first and which second. Having decided which type predominates and
which is second in him, the significance of this combination is made clear
to you by the following law: Law of Combination ¶ The type PREDOMINATING in a person determines
WHAT he does throughout his life–the NATURE of his main activities. The type which comes second in development
will determine the WAY he does things–the METHODS he will follow in
doing what his predominant type signifies. The third element, if noticeable, merely “flavors”
his personality. Thus, a Cerebral-Muscular-Alimentive does
MENTAL things predominantly throughout his life, but in a more MUSCULAR
way than if he were an extreme Cerebral. The Alimentive element,
being third down the list, will tend to make him eat and assimilate more
food than he otherwise would. CHAPTER VI Types That Should and Should Not Marry Each
Other “I am so sorry to hear the Browns are being
divorced. I have known George and Mary for years and they are as fine a
man and woman as I ever saw. But they just don’t seem able to get along
together.” How many times you have heard something like
this. And the speaker got nearer the truth than he knew. For the Georges
and Marys everywhere are, on the whole, fine men and women. Married to the Wrong One ¶ Each one is all right in himself, but merely
married to the wrong person–a fact we have recognized when both
George and Mary made successes of their second ventures and lived
happily ever after. Human happiness, as we have noted in the introduction
to this volume, is attained only through _doing what the organism
was built to do, in an environment that is favorable_. Marriage is
only the attempt of two people to attain these two ends individually,
mutually and simultaneously. Difficulties of Double Harness ¶ Now, since it is almost impossible for
one to achieve happiness when untrammeled and free, is it to be wondered
at that so few achieve it in double harness? For the difficulties to be
surmounted are doubled and the helps are halved by the presence of a
running mate. Mere Marriedness is not Mating ¶ That “two can live on less than one” is
not true–but it is nearer the truth than that two can find ultimate happiness
together easier than either can find an approximation of happiness
alone. This is not saying that any one who is unmated
can have happiness as complete as that which comes to the rightly
mated–for nothing else in life can compare with that–but they must
be RIGHTLY MATED, not merely _married_. No one who has observed or thought on this
subject will deny that it is a thousand times better not to be married
at all than to be married to the wrong person. Secrets Told by Statistics ¶ Surveys of the causes for divorce during
the past ten years in the United States have revealed some startling
facts–facts which only prove again that Human Analysis shows us the truth
about ourselves as no science has ever shown it to us before. One of the most illuminating facts these surveys
have revealed is that _only those men and women can be happy together
whose natures automatically encourage each other in the
doing of the things each likes to do, in the way each likes to do them_. Inborn inclination determines the things every
human being prefers to do, concerning all the fundamental activities
of his life, and also the manner in which he prefers to do them. These
inborn inclinations, as we have previously pointed out, are written all
over us in the unmistakable language of type. When we know a man’s type we know what things
he prefers to _do_ in life’s main experiences and _how_ he prefers
to do them. And we know that unless he is permitted to do approximately
what he _wants_ to do in approximately the _way_ he prefers, he becomes
unhappy and unsuccessful. Infatuation No Guide ¶ These biological bents are so deeply embedded
in every individual that no amount of affection, admiration, or respect,
or passion for any other individual suffices to enable any one to go
through long years doing what he dislikes and still be happy. Only
in the first flush of infatuation can he sacrifice his own preferences
for those of another. After a while passion and infatuation ooze
away. Nature sees to that, just as she sees to their coming in the first
place. Then there return the old leanings, preferences, tendencies
and cravings inherent in the type of each. The Real “Reversion to Type” ¶ Under this urge of his type each reverts
gradually but irresistibly to his old habits, doing largely what he prefers
to do in the ways that are to his liking. When that day comes the real
test of their marriage begins. If the distance between them is too
great they can not cross that chasm, and thereafter each lives a life
inwardly removed from the other. They make attempts to cross the barrier and
some of these are successful for a short while. They talk to and fro across
the void sometimes; but their communings become less frequent, their
voices less distinct, until at last each withdraws into himself. There
he lives, in the world of his own nature–as completely separated from his
mate as though they dwelt on different planets. We Can Know ¶ “But how is one to know the right person?”
you ask. By recognizing science’s recent discovery to the effect that
certain types can travel helpfully, happily and harmoniously together
and that certain others never can. What Every Individual Owes to Himself ¶ Every individual owes it to himself to
find the right work and the right mate, because these are fundamental
needs of every human being. Lacking them, life is a failure; possessing
but one of them, life is half a failure. To obtain and apply the very fullest knowledge
toward the attainment of these two great requisites should be the aim
of every person. Neglected Subjects ¶ Despite the fact that these are the most
vital problems pertaining to human happiness and that every individual’s
life depends for its glory or defeat, joy or sorrow upon the right settlement
of them–they are two of the most neglected. Divorce Courts ¶ Our divorce courts are full of splendid
men and women who are there not because they are weak or wrong, but because
they stepped into nature’s age-old Instinct trap without realizing
where it would lead them. These men and women who pay so heavy a price
for their ignorance and blindness are _not_ to blame. Most of them
have been taught that to be legally bound together was sufficient guarantee
of marital bliss. But experience has shown us that there are
certain kinds of people each individual can associate with in harmony and
that there are those with whom he could never be happy though a hundred
ministers pronounced them mated for life. Times Will Change ¶ But the time is coming when we will select
our mates scientifically, not merely sentimentally. It is also coming
when we will know what every child is fitted to do by looking at him, just
as we know better today than to set a shepherd dog on the trail of
criminals or a bloodhound to herd sheep. The Great Quest ¶ Instead of beclouding the significance
and the sanity of life’s great quest; instead of encouraging every manner
of mismating as we do today, we will some day arm our children with knowledge
enabling them to wisely choose their life work and their life mate. Dolly’s Dimple ¶ The fact that Dolly has a dimple may make
your senses whirl but it is not sufficient basis for marriage. There are
things of vastly greater importance, though of course this does not
seem possible to you at the time. Sammy’s Smile ¶ And though Sammy sports a smile the gods
might envy, he may not be the right man for Dolly. Even a smile that never
comes off, great lubricator that it undeniably is, is not sufficient
foundation for a “till-death-do-us-part” contract. Little Things vs. Big Things ¶ When we hear of a divorce we assume that
it was caused by the inability of those two people to agree upon
fundamentals. We suppose that they found within themselves wide divergences
of opinion, feeling or attitude regarding really worth while questions–social,
religious, political or economic. We are inclined to
imagine that “the little things” should take care of themselves and
that only the “big things” such as these should be allowed to separate
two lives, once they have been joined together. What the Records Show ¶ Yet the exact opposite is what happens,
according to the divorce records of the United States. These records show that divorces do not arise
out of differences in what we have always called the big things of life,
but out of those things which we have always called the little ones. Why He Can’t Change ¶ We do not expect a husband or wife to change
his religion and take on his partner’s faith. We imagine this is an
inherent thing more or less deeply imbedded in him and not to be altered,
while we consider it only fair and right for John to give up his favorite
sport, his hobby and some of his habits for Mary’s sake. At the risk of shocking the supersensitive,
it must be admitted that most individuals get their religious leanings
from external sources–parents, teachers, ministers, friends
and especially by the accident of being born in a certain country,
among a certain sect or within a certain community. On the other hand, one’s preferences in the
matter of diversions are born in him, part and parcel of his very being
and remain so to the end of his life. Accordingly, just as it is easier
to change the frosting on a cake than to change the inside, it is easier
to change a man’s religion than to change his activities. Diversion and Divorce ¶ Most of the divorces granted in America
during the past ten years have been demanded, not on grounds dealing with
the so-called fundamentals, but for differences regarding so-called unimportant
things. And more than seventy out of every hundred divorces
every year in this country are asked for on grounds pertaining to _diversion_. In other words, more than seventy per cent
of American divorces are granted because husbands and wives can not
adapt themselves to each other in the matter of how they shall spend
their LEISURE hours. “People who can not play together will not
work together long,” said Elbert Hubbard. Human Analysis, which shows
that each type tends automatically to the doing of certain things
in certain ways whenever free to act, proves that this is just as literal
as it sounds. The only time we are free to act is during
our leisure hours. All other hours are mortgaged to earning a living–in
the accomplishment of which we often have very little outlet for natural
trends. So it is only “after hours” and “over Sundays” that the
masses of mankind have an opportunity to express their real natures. Uncongenial Work Affects Marriage ¶ The less one’s work permits him to do the
things he enjoys the more surely will he turn to them in the hours when
this restraint is removed. If such a one has a husband or wife
who encourages him in the following of his natural bents during leisure
hours, that marriage stands a big chance of being happy. These two people may differ widely in their
respective religious ideas–one may be a Catholic, the other a
Protestant, or one a Shaker and the other a Christian Scientist–but they
can build lasting happiness together. On the other hand, two people who agree perfectly
as to religious, social and political views but who can not
agree as to the disposition of their leisure hours are bound for the rocks. As the honeymoon fades, each reverts to the
kind of recreation congenial to his type. If his mate is averse to his
diversions each goes his own way. The Eternal Triangle ¶ The tragedy of “the other man” and “the
other woman” is not a mystery to him who understands Human Analysis. It
is always the result of finding some one of kindred standards and
tastes–that is, some one whose type is congenial. The Eternal Triangle
arises again and again in human lives, not accidentally, but as the
inevitable result of violating inexorable laws. Law of Marital Happiness ¶ MARRIAGE SHOULD TAKE PLACE ONLY BETWEEN
THOSE WHOSE FIRST TYPE-ELEMENTS ARE SUFFICIENTLY SIMILAR FOR
THEM TO ENJOY THE SAME GENERAL DIVERSIONS, YET WHOSE SECOND TYPE-ELEMENTS
ARE SUFFICIENTLY DISSIMILAR TO MAKE EACH STRONG WHERE THE OTHER
IS WEAK. ¶ The application of the law to each of the
five types will be explained in the following sections of this chapter. * * * * * Part One THE ALIMENTIVE IN LOVE ¶ Just as each type reacts differently to
all the other situations in life, each reacts differently to love. The Alimentive, as we have pointed out, is
less mature than the other types, with the Thoracic next, and so on down
to the Cerebral which is the most mature of all. Because the Alimentive
has rightly been called “the baby of the race;” because no extremely
fat person ever really grows up, this type prefers those love-expressions
natural to the immature. The Most Affectionate Type ¶ Caressing, petting, fondling and cuddling–those
demonstrations not of wild passion but of affection such as children
enjoy–are most often used by Alimentive men and women when in love. ¶ Because they are inclined to bestow little
attentions more or less promiscuously, they often get the reputation
of being flirtatious when they are not. Such actions also are often
taken by the one to whom they are directed as indicating more than the giver
means. So beware of taking the little pats of fat
people too seriously. They mean well, but have the baby’s habit of bestowing
innocent smiles and caresses everywhere. Why They are Loved ¶ Each type has traits peculiar to itself
which tend to make others fall in love with it. In the Alimentive the outstanding
trait which wins love is his sweet disposition. The human ego is so constituted that we tend
to like all interesting people who do not offer us opposition. The
Alimentive is amenable, affable, agreeable. His ready smile, his tendency
to promote harmony and his general geniality bring him love and keep
it for him while more clever types lose it. Millionaires Marry Them ¶ “Why does a brilliant business man marry
that little fat woman who is not his equal mentally?” the world has asked
many a time. Human Analysis answers it, as it answers so many of the other
age-long queries about human eccentricities. ¶ The little fat woman has a sweet disposition–one
of the most soothing of human attributes. The business man has
enough of “brilliant” people all day. When he gets home he is rather inclined
to be merely the “tired business man,” and in that state nothing is
more agreeable than a wife with a smile. ¶ As for fat husbands, many a wife supports
them in preference to being supported by another and less agreeable man. The Prettiest Type ¶ When a woman becomes engaged her friends
all inquire, “What does he do?” but when a man’s engagement is announced
every one asks, “What does she look like?” So it is small wonder that
men have placed prettiness near the top of the list, and the Alimentive
woman is the prettiest of all types. This little fact must not be overlooked
when searching for the causes which have prompted so many of
the world’s wealthiest men to marry them. Other men may have to content
themselves with plain wives, but the man of means can pick and choose–and
every man prefers a pretty wife to a plain one. Feminine prettiness (not beauty) consists
of the rose-bud mouth, the baby eyes, the cute little nose, the round
cheeks, the dimpled chin, etc.–all more or less monopolized by the
Alimentive type. The “Womanly” Type ¶ The fat woman’s refusal to worry keeps
the wrinkles away and as long as she does not become obese she remains attractive.
Her “clinging-vine” ways make men call her the most “womanly”
type, and even when she tips the scales at two hundred and fifty they are
still for her. Then they say “she looks so motherly.” So the fat woman goes through life more loved
by men than any other type, and in old age she presents a picture
of calmness and domestic serenity that is appealing to everybody. Marry Earliest and Oftenest ¶ Being in demand, the Alimentive woman marries
earlier than any other type. As a widow the same demand takes her
off the marriage market while younger and brainier women pine their lives
away in spinsterhood. Look back and you will recall that it was
the pretty, plump girls who had beaux earliest, married earliest, and
who, even when left with several children, did not remain widows long. Desirable Traits of Alimentive Wives ¶ Next to her sweet disposition, the traits
which make the Alimentive wife most pleasant to get along with are serenity,
optimism and good cooking. Her Weaknesses ¶ Many an Alimentive wife loses her husband’s
love because of her too easy-going habits. Unless controlled, these
lead to slovenliness in personal appearance and housekeeping. The Alimentive Wife and Money ¶ The Alimentive wife usually has her share
of the family income because she has the endearing ways that wring it out
of hubby. Sales people everywhere say, “We like to see
a fat woman coming, for she usually has money, spends it freely and is
easy to please.” In Disagreements ¶ What they do with their quarrels after
they are through with them determines to a great extent the ultimate
success of any pair’s marriage. Alimentive husbands and wives bury
the hatchet sooner than other types and they avoid altercations. Lives Anywhere ¶ The Alimentive wife offers less resistance
to her husband’s plans than any other. So when he announces they are moving
to some other neighborhood, city or state she acquiesces
with better grace than other types. Family Friends ¶ The responsibility of adding new friends
to the family rests equally upon each partner in marriage. The average
husband, by reason of mingling more with the world, has the greater
opportunity, but every wife can and should consider that she owes
it to herself, her husband and her children to contribute her quota. Alimentive husbands and wives add their share
of new acquaintances to any marriage in which they are partners. The
Alimentive wife always enjoys having people in to dinner and the
Alimentive husband enjoys bringing them. The warmth of hospitality in
Alimentive homes brings them more friendships than come to other types. Fat Man Also Marries Young ¶ The fat man marries young, but for a different
reason than the fat woman. The fat man, as you will note, “gets
a job” early in life. From that time on his services seldom go begging. He makes a good salary earlier than other
types and is therefore sooner in a position to marry. The “Ladies’ Man” ¶ Just as the fat woman is “a man’s woman,”
so the fat man is almost invariably “a ladies’ man.” The fat man usually
“knows women” better than any other type and it is certain that
the fat woman “knows men.” Her record proves it. No Fat Bachelors ¶ Just as there are few fat “old maids,”
there are few fat bachelors. You can count on the fingers of one hand all
the really overweight ones you ever knew. The Best “Provider” ¶ Because he makes money easily through the
various forms of his superior business qualifications, the average
fat man has plenty of money for his family and likes to spend it
upon them. He is the best provider of all the types. Fat people are
the most lenient parents and usually over-indulge their children. The husband who makes a habit for years of
sending home crates of the first strawberries, melons and oranges of
the season is a fat one every time. Desirable Traits of Fat Husbands ¶ His generous provision for his family and
the fact that he is essentially a “family man” are two desirable
traits of the Alimentive husband. He depends more on his home than
other types, he marries young to have a home and he is seldom farther away
from it than he has to be. It is unfortunate that the one type which
makes the best “travelling man” is more inconvenienced by the absence
from home than any other type would be. But he has not submitted silently.
All the world knows what a “hard life” the traveling salesman leads and
how he misses “the wife, the kids and the good home cooking.” Weaknesses of Alimentive Husbands ¶ The Alimentive husband has but one weakness
that materially endangers his marital happiness. He is inclined to be
too easy and extravagant, and not to save money. Mates for Alimentives ¶ Because of his amenability the Alimentive
can marry almost any type and be happy. But for fullest happiness, those
who are predominantly Alimentive–that is, those in whom the Alimentive
type comes first–should marry, as a first choice, those
who are predominantly Muscular. The Muscular shares the Alimentive’s
ambition to “get on in the world” and at the same time adds to the
union the practicality which offsets the too easy-going, lackadaisical
tendencies of the Alimentive. The second choice for the predominantly Alimentive
should be the one who is predominantly Thoracic. These two types
have much in common. The brilliance and speed of the Thoracic keeps
the Alimentive “looking to his laurels,” and thus tends to prevent the
carelessness which is so great a handicap to the predominantly Alimentive. The third choice of the predominantly Alimentive
may be one who is also predominantly Alimentive, but in that case
it should be an Alimentive-Muscular or an Alimentive-Cerebral. The last type the pure Alimentive should ever
marry is the pure Cerebral. * * * * * Part Two LOVE AND
THE THORACIC ¶ The Thoracic in love exhibits the same
general traits which characterize him in all his other relationships. The Most Beautiful Woman ¶ The Thoracic woman is the most beautiful
type of all. She is not “pretty” like the Alimentive, but her refined
features and beautiful coloring give her a distinctive appearance. The Handsomest Man ¶ The Thoracic is also the handsomest man
of all. He is tall, high-chested, wide-shouldered and has the
masculine face resulting from his high-bridged, prominent nose and high
cheek bones. The Thoracic Charmer ¶ The Thoracic has more of that quality we
call “charm” than any other type. Charm is largely self-expression by
tactful methods. Since this type is the most self-expressive and the most
tactful it possesses naturally this invaluable trait. Both men and women of this type have an elusive,
attractive something in their personalities that others do not have–a
very personal appeal that makes an immediate impression. It pierces
farther beneath the surface of strangers than other types do on much longer
acquaintance. The Thoracic does not seem a stranger at all. His own confidences,
given to you almost immediately upon meeting you, remove
the barriers. The Lure of the Thoracic ¶ There is about the Thoracic person a lure
that others seldom have. You do not attempt to describe it. You say “he
is just different,” and he is. No other type has his spontaneity and
instantaneous responsiveness. So while the Alimentive is always liked, it
is in a more mild, easy, comfortable way. The Alimentive does not stir
the blood but has a strong, tender, even hold on people. The Thoracic,
on the other hand, intrigues your attention, impales it, and
holds it. Love at First Sight ¶ The Thoracics fall in love at first sight
much more often than other types. They also cause others to fall in love
with them without preliminaries, for they pursue the object
of their affections with a fire and fury that is almost irresistible. ¶ Hundreds of persons marry each year who
have known each other but a few days or weeks. In every instance you will
find that one of them is a Thoracic–and usually both. No other type
can become so hopelessly in love on such short notice. The Most Flirtatious ¶ The Thoracic is a born philanderer. He does not mean to mislead or injure, but
flirtation is second nature to him. This comes from the fact that flirtation,
more than any other human experience, contains that adventurous,
thrilling element he desires. Overheard in Transit ¶ We overheard the following conversation
in the street car the other day between two young women who occupied the
seat in front of us: “I was sorry to hurt him,” explained the Thoracic.
“I did love him last week and I told him so, but I don’t love him any
more and I do love somebody else now.” She really loved him–last week! Thoracics can have a severe case of love,
and get just as completely over it in a week as the rest of us get over
the measles. The Joy of Life ¶ A joy in living expresses itself in almost
everything the Thoracic does, especially when he is young. Such people
appear almost electrical. These are traits of great fascination and
the Thoracic uses them freely upon others throughout his life. Always Blushing ¶ His over-developed circulatory system causes
the Thoracic to blush easily and often. This tendency has long been
capitalized by women but is not so much enjoyed by men. Most Easily Hurt ¶ Because of his supersensitiveness the Thoracic’s
feelings are more easily hurt than those of other types, as
every one who has ever had a florid friend or sweetheart will remember. They forgive quickly and completely, but every
little thing said, looked, or acted by the loved one is translated
in terms of the personal. Bony people especially find it difficult
to understand or be tolerant of this trait in the Thoracic, because
it is the exact opposite of themselves. They call the Thoracic “thin-skinned,”
and the Thoracic replies that the bony man has “a skin like
a walrus.” And each is right from his own viewpoint. The Chivalrous Thoracic Man ¶ With his keen intuitions, his sense of
the fitness of things and his trigger-like adeptness, the Thoracic man easily
becomes an attentive and chivalrous companion. Where the bony man is often oblivious to the
fine points of courtesy, the Thoracic anticipates his friend’s every
wish and movement, picks up her handkerchief almost before she has dropped
it, opens doors instantaneously and specializes in those graces
dear to the heart of woman. He is likely to do as much for the very next
lady he meets just as soon as he meets her. These ready courtesies cost
the Thoracic husband as many explanations as the caressing habit costs
the Alimentive. Breaches of Promise ¶ More bona fide breach of promise suits
are brought against the Thoracic man than any other. He thinks rapidly,
speaks almost as quickly as he thinks and about what he thinks. Consequently many an honorable man has awakened
some morning to find he has to “pay the piper” for an impulsive proposal
made to a girl he would not walk across the street now to see. Many a girl, too, when she is “in love with
love” promises to marry, and the next day wonders what made her do it. This is the type of chameleon-like girl whose
vagaries and “sweet uncertainties” form the theme of many short
stories, in most of which she is pictured as “the eternal feminine.” She Gets Much Attention ¶ Nevertheless, many a man prefers this creature
of “a million moods” to the staid and sedate girl of other types.
So the Thoracic girl seldom lacks for attention. She does not have as
many intimate friends as the fat girl, for she is less comforting, and
comfort is one of the first requisites of friendship. But she has a longer
line of beaux dancing attendance upon her, sending her flowers,
candy and messages. The Stunning Girl ¶ Another reason why the Thoracic girl has
more attention from men is that she is the most smartly-gowned of all
the types. The new, the extreme, the “very latest” in women’s clothes
are first seen on the Thoracic girl. She is the type men call “stunning.” Men prefer companions who appear well–whom
other men admire. The Thoracic woman demands the same of the men
she goes about with, and for these two reasons many Thoracics marry those
in whom their own type predominates. The “Merry Widows” ¶ Make a note of the “dashing widows,” you
have known–those who were called “the merry widows”–and you will recall
a large Thoracic element in each. For this type of woman, unlike the home-keeping
Alimentive, enjoys being a widow and remains one. She usually has many
chances to remarry but her changeable, gaiety-loving nature revels in
the freedom, sophistication and distinction of widowhood. The appearance of endless youth given by her
alive, responsive personality deceives the most discerning as
to her age. The woman of fifty who enthralls the youths of twenty-five
is usually of the Thoracic type. Refuses to Grow Old ¶ This woman refuses to grow old, just as
the Alimentive refuses to grow up. She clings to her beauty as does no other
type. She it is who self-sacrificingly starves herself to retain
her slenderness, who massages and exercises and “cold-creams” herself
hours a day before the shrine of Eternal Youth. Her high color, “all
her own,” is a decided asset in this direction. This woman devotes as much attention to her
grooming at sixty as the Alimentive does at twenty. For this reason
you may any day see two women of forty together, one an Alimentive and the
other a Thoracic–and take the plump one to be several or many years
older than the florid one. Love the “Bright Lights” ¶ Thoracic men and women care more about
“the bright lights” than other types. The Alimentive likes what he calls
“a good time”–with fun and plenty of “refreshments”–but the Thoracic’s
idea of a good time usually includes a touch of “high life.” This all comes from his love of thrill and
novelty and is innocent enough. But it leads to misunderstandings
and broken homes unless the Thoracic marries the right type of person. ¶ The Osseous, for instance, has nothing
in his consciousness by which to understand the desire for excitement which
is so strong in the Thoracic. We have all known good wives and
loving mothers whose marital happiness was destroyed because they could
not compel themselves to lead the drab existence laid out for them by their
bony, stony husbands. In many cases the wife, who only wanted a little
innocent fun, was less to blame than her unbending spouse. Why She Went Insane ¶ One day several years ago we drove up to
a lonely farmhouse in Montana just as a tragedy was enacted. The mother
was being taken to the state asylum for the insane. The seven little children
watched the strange performance, unable to understand what had
happened. The father, a tall, raw-boned, angular man was almost as mystified
as the children. “Crazy?” he said, “I don’t believe it. Say,
what did she have to go crazy about? She hasn’t seen anything to excite
her. Why, she’s not been off this farm for twenty years!” The “Gay Devil” Husband ¶ The same thing happens every day between
severe, bony wives and their florid, frolicking husbands. “She is a perfect
housekeeper and a good wife” exclaim her friends–“why should her
husband spend his evenings away from home?” These questions will continue
to be asked until we realize that being “a good housekeeper and
a good wife” does not fill the bill with a Thoracic man. A wife who will
leave the dinner dishes in the kitchen sink occasionally and run away
with him for a “lark” on a moment’s notice is the kind that retains the
love of her florid husband. A husband who is willing to leave his favorite
magazine, pipe, and slippers to take her out in the evening is
the kind a Thoracic woman likes. She even prefers a “gay devil” to a
“stick”–as she calls the slow ones. Makes Him Jealous ¶ The Thoracic man wants his wife to look
well and be pleasing but no husband wants his wife to be irresistibly
attractive to other men. So it often happens that the Thoracic woman causes
her husband much jealousy. Her youthful actions and distinctive dressing
make her a magnet for all eyes. If he happens to be too different in
type to understand her naturalness and pure-mindedness in this he
often suffers keenly. Sometimes he causes _her_ to suffer for it
when they get home. Human Analysis makes us all more tolerant
of each other. It enables us to know why people act as they do, and, best
of all, that they mean well and not ill most of the time. Dislikes the Monotonous ¶ The Thoracic, you will remember, dislikes
monotony. Everything savoring of routine, sameness–the dead level–wears
on him. Three meals a day three hundred and sixty-five
days in a year, with the same person, in the same room, at the same
table, is unspeakably irksome to him. He may love that other person with
completeness and constancy, but he occasionally demands what Bernard Shaw
calls “domestic change of air.” “My Wife’s Gone to the Country,” was the biggest
song hit of its year because there were so many florid men who
understood just how that man felt! ¶ The florid wife is as loving as any other
but she heaves a sigh of relief and invites her women friends in for
a party when John goes away on business. Not Easy to Live With ¶ Thoracic husbands or wives are not as easy
to live with as the Alimentive. They are too affectable, too susceptible
to sudden changes of mood. They live alternately on the crest
of the wave and in the depths, and rob the home of that serenity
which is essential to harmony. Impulsive tendencies which made the sweetheart
adorable are less attractive in the wife. And hubby’s hair-trigger
temperament she now calls just plain temper. Desirable Traits of Thoracics ¶ That they are the most charming in manner,
the most tasteful in dress and the most entertaining of any type constitute
the traits which make the Thoracic husband or wife desirable and
attractive. Live Beyond Means ¶ Husbands and wives of this type present
this marital problem however: they tend to live beyond their means. The
husband in such a case seldom confides the true state of his financial affairs
to his wife while the Thoracic wife, bent on making the best possible
appearance, finds it almost impossible to trim down expenditures
to fit the family purse. The habit of entertaining extravagantly and
almost constantly also costs the Thoracic household dear. ¶ The desire on the part of a Thoracic husband
or wife to move frequently from that particular house, neighborhood,
or city presents another difficulty. Should Marry Own Type ¶ For the reasons stated above and throughout
this work, the predominantly Thoracic person should marry
his own type as first choice. No other can understand his impulsiveness. His second choice should be a person predominantly
of the Alimentive type. The Alimentive is more like the Thoracic
than any other, and in the places where they differ the Alimentive
gives in with better grace than other types. The third choice may be a predominantly Muscular
person. In the latter case, however, the Muscular should have either
Thoracic or Alimentive tendencies combined with his muscularity. Because they are so different as to be almost
opposites, and therefore unable to understand each other, the last
person the Thoracic should marry is the Osseous. * * * * * Part Three MARRIAGE AND MUSCULARS ¶ The Muscular does not marry early like
the Alimentive nor hastily like the Thoracic. His is a practical nature and
his practicality is expressed here as in everything else. Back
of his Marriage you will often find some of the same practical reasons
that prompt his other activities. Marries Between Twenty-five and Thirty-five ¶ Most Musculars are still unmarried at twenty-five
when their Alimentive friends have families and when
their Thoracic ones have had a divorce or two. But few Musculars are unmarried
at thirty-five, though at that age their Osseous and Cerebral friends
are often still single. The Muscular does not marry on nothing, and
as he does not star in any line of work as early in life as the Alimentive
or Thoracic he does not have the means to marry as early in life as
they. But he is a splendid worker, gets something to do and does it fairly
well. The Alimentive spends too much on food and
other comforts and the Thoracic too much on luxuries, but the Muscular,
while not mercenary, saves a larger portion of his income. Make “Sensible” Marriages ¶ So at somewhere around thirty the Muscular
is prepared to establish a home. By that time he has lived past the rash
stage and selects a mate as much like himself as possible, in order
not to be thwarted in his aims for “getting somewhere in the world”–aims
which dominate this type all his life. A Mate for Wearing Qualities ¶ This type selects his mate as he selects
his clothes–for wearing quality. He prefers plain, simple people,
for he is plain and simple himself. They are not carried off their feet
by impulse as are some of the other types. They therefore choose wives
and husbands whose lovable qualities show signs of durability. The Most Positive Lover ¶ The Muscular makes love almost as strenuously
as he does everything else. He does not do it especially gracefully
like the Thoracic, nor caressingly like the Alimentive, but intensely
and in dead earnest. He does not cut short the courtship like the
Thoracic, nor extend it for years like the Osseous, but marries as soon
as the practical requirements can be met. The Alimentive is the most affectionate in
love and the Thoracic the most flirtatious, but the Muscular is the
most positive. The Fatal Handicap ¶ The Muscular has more strong traits than
any other type from the marital point of view, but he has one weakness
of such magnitude that it often counterbalances them. His pugnacity
causes him to give way frequently to violent outbursts of anger.
In them he says bitter things that are almost impossible to forgive. This type’s chief handicap in all his relations
is his tendency to fight too quickly, to say too much when angry, and
thus to make enemies. In marriage this is a serious handicap which
loses many an otherwise ideal husband or wife the chance for happiness. Another Muscular trait which makes life difficult
for his mate is his tendency to be so generous with outsiders
that his family suffers. Also this type of husband or wife is inclined
to sacrifice the social side of family life to work and thus widen
the distance between husband and wife as the years go on. Desirable Traits ¶ Working capacity, generosity and squareness
are qualities making for the success of the Muscular marriage. The Muscular wife, more often than any other,
helps earn the living when things go wrong financially. The Muscular usually dislikes flirtations
and gives his mate little anxiety on this score. Mates for Musculars ¶ The Muscular has four choices in the selection
of a mate. There is but one type he should never marry and that is
the Osseous. The stubborness of the Osseous, when pitted against the Muscular’s
pugnacity, causes constant warfare. The predominantly Muscular
person should choose a mate who is also predominantly Muscular. No other
type aids him in the practical affairs of the family’s future.
But it is well for him when this Muscular has decided Cerebral tendencies.
Second choice for the Muscular is a mate predominantly Cerebral.
The Muscular in this case furnishes the brawn to work out the plans
made by the brain of the Cerebral, and the combination is one that
stands a good chance of happiness. Third choice is the Thoracic, and
fourth choice the Alimentive. * * * * * Part Four THE OSSEOUS IN LOVE ¶ Bring to mind all the men and women you
have known who waited ten, twenty or thirty years for the one they had
given their hearts to. You will recall that they all had large bones
or large joints for their bodies. Such people are always predominantly
Osseous. The loved one may marry but the bony man or
woman remains faithful; it must be the one they want or none. The Riddle Solved ¶ This fact accounts for some of the incongruous
matches in middle or later life of old friends who seem to be unfitted
to each other. Often one of them has waited many years for the
other to consent, for children to grow up, or for Death to clear the way. One Lover Through Life ¶ Osseous men and women are so constituted
that it is practically impossible for them to love many times during
a lifetime. Bony people, even when young, have fewer sweethearts
than other types. The large-boned boy or girl is usually ill
at ease in the presence of the other sex, avoids social affairs, and
does not attract love as early in life as other types do. They suffer keenly from the near-ostracism
resulting from this, but are powerless to change it. Live Apart from Others ¶ Because they live more or less apart from
their fellows, even as children, and tend to withdraw into themselves,
the Osseous see little of the other sex, learn little about it and
come to think of it as unapproachable. As we have seen, the Alimentive feels at ease
with the other sex, the Thoracic charms them, the Muscular cultivates
them when he is in earnest, but the Osseous avoids them. If he
does not marry he becomes more and more awkward in their presence as
he grows older. Such a person will often go a block out of his way to avoid
meeting a person of the opposite sex. Marries Less Often ¶ This naturally leads to the unmated life
which characterizes so many men and women of the Osseous type. We asked you to recall the one or two Alimentive
bachelors and spinsters you ever knew, the three or four
Thoracics and the not more than half a dozen Musculars who didn’t marry.
But it will take some time to enumerate the Osseous people you know who
have never married. This type constitutes a very large proportion of
the unmarried. Most Difficult to Live With ¶ When the Osseous does marry he is the most
difficult of all types to live with, because he is inclined to be immovable
and unbending. To give and take has long been considered
the secret of happy marriage and certainly is one of them. But this type
finds it almost impossible to adapt himself to his mate. He wants everything
in a certain way at a certain time and for a certain purpose. Whoever
opposes him is pretty ruthlessly handled. Another marital liability of this type is
his disinclination and inability to make new friends. He contributes
to the family circle only those few intimates he has had for years. Likes to Dominate ¶ The Osseous is inclined to dominate and
often to domineer over his mate and over his family in general. This
is as true of the women as of the men. As we have seen, type and not sex
is what causes the big distinctions between people. The Hen-Pecked Husband ¶ Whenever you see a hen-pecked husband look
at his wife. You will always find that she has either large joints,
large bones or a square jaw. Many times we have heard men declare “they
would show such a wife how to act,” but unless they could change her boniness
they would find it difficult to “show her” much of anything. The reason the husband of such a woman seldom
resists is because he is nine times out of ten an Alimentive or a Cerebral–types
that prefer to be bossed rather than to boss. The same combination is usually present when
the husband dominates the wife. He is almost invariably bony and she
is either Alimentive or Cerebral. And other women say, “I’d like to
show such a husband what I would do if he tried to tyrannize over ME
as he does over her!” But such a woman often prefers a husband who relieves
her of the responsibility of decisions, and two such people sometimes
lead surprisingly happy lives together. Mates for the Osseous ¶ Therefore the type best fitted to live
in harmony with the predominantly Osseous is the predominantly
Alimentive. Second choice is the predominantly Cerebral, for the reasons
stated above. There is no third choice. The pure Osseous and pure Thoracic should
not marry because they are too far removed from each other in all their tendencies
ever to understand each other. The one type the pure Osseous should never
mate with is his own. Nothing but trouble results when two of the extreme
bony type marry, for each has definite views, desires and preferences–and
neither can give in. * * * * * Part Five LOVE AND THE CEREBRAL ¶ The Cerebral type takes most of his love
out in dreaming. He is as impractical about his affections as about
all else and often nothing but hopes come of it. Next to the Osseous he marries
less frequently than any other type. Head and Heart in the Clouds ¶ The Cerebral often remains single because
he can not come down to earth long enough to propose, or if he does
he is so gentle and timid about it the girl is afraid to trust her life
to him. Timidity His Curse ¶ Timidity costs the Cerebral man most of
the good things he could otherwise get out of life. He is almost afraid
to fall in love, afraid to speak after he does and afraid to face
the hostile world with two lives on his hands. Women Like Him ¶ The average woman likes the Cerebral type
of man but seldom loves or adores him. His helplessness appeals to her
motherly sympathy. Can Not Buffet the World ¶ But women are afraid to marry the extreme
type even when the feeling he prompts is more than mere protectiveness.
They know he can not buffet the world for them and their offspring. So, even when they love him best they usually
marry the fat salesman, the Muscular worker who always has a good
job, the Thoracic promoter who promises luxury, or the Osseous man who
won’t take “No” for an answer. Always Leap Year for Him. ¶ When this type of man does marry it is
often due as much to her proposal as his. He is especially aided in
his courtship if “she” happens to be a quick-spoken Thoracic, a straight-from-the-shoulder
Muscular, or one of those determined Osseous girls. The Much-Loved Cerebral Woman ¶ The Cerebral woman is more fortunate in
achieving marriage than the Cerebral man. The impracticality which so
seriously handicaps him, since the husband is supposed to support the family,
is not quite so much of a handicap to her. Men who love her at all, love her for her
tenderness, conscientiousness and delicacy and deem it a pleasure to work
for her, and she is one type of woman who usually appreciates it. The Cerebral’s Weaknesses ¶ The tendency to dream his life away instead
of doing tangible things that assist in the progress of the family
is the greatest marital handicap of the Cerebral type. Inability to make money results directly from
this, and since money is so important in the rearing and educating
of children, those who can not get it are bound to face hardship and disillusionment. The Saddest Sight ¶ The most pathetic sight to be seen anywhere
is that of the delicate, intellectual man who loves his family dearly,
has the highest ideals and yet is unable to provide for them. When Love Flies Out the Window ¶ “When poverty comes in the door love flies
out the window” is a saying as old as it is sad. ¶ And it is as true as it is both old and
sad. Despite the philosophers–who are all Cerebrals
themselves!–love should grow in sheltered soil, protected from the
buffetings of wind and storm. Without means no man can provide this protection.
Happy marriage, as we have seen, is based on the cultivation of
the strong points and the submergence of the weak ones of each partner.
Poverty does more to bring out the worst in people and conceal the best
than anything else in the world. So, although this type is high-minded,
more idealistic in his love than any other type and has fewer of
the lower instincts, he makes less of a success of marriage than any other
type. Mates for the Cerebral ¶ Because he lives in his mind and not in
his external world the predominantly Cerebral must marry one who
also is predominantly Cerebral. The reading of books, attendance at good plays,
and the study of great movements constitute the chief enjoyments
of this type and if he has a mate who cares nothing for these things his
marriage is bound to be a failure. The Cerebral he marries should, however, be
inclined to the Muscular also. Second choice for this type is the predominantly
Muscular and third choice is the Osseous. The firmness of the
latter is often a desirable element in the combination, for the Cerebral
does not mind giving the reins over to his Osseous mate; he does not
like driving anyhow. The last type of all for the pure Cerebral
to marry is the pure Alimentive because it is farthest removed
from his own type. These two have very little in common. _Remember, in marriage, TYPE is not a substitute
for LOVE. Both are essential to ideal mating. People contemplating
matrimony are like two autoists planning a long journey together,
each driving his own car. Whether they can make the same speed,
climb the same grades “on high” and be well matched in general,
depends on the TYPE of these two cars. But it takes LOVE to supply
the gas, the self-starters and the spark plugs!_ CHAPTER VII Vocations For Each Type “Fame and Failure” The masses of mankind form a vast pyramid.
At the very tip-top peak are gathered the few who are famous. In the bottom
layer are the many failures. Between these extremes lie all the
rest–from those who live near the ragged edge of Down-and-Out-Land
to those who storm the doors of the House of Greatness. Again, between these, and making up the large
majority, are the myriads of laborers, clerks, small business men, housekeepers–that
myriad-headed mass known as “the back bone of the world.” Yet the great distance from the lower layer
to the tip-top peak is not insurmountable. Many have covered it almost
overnight. A Favorite Fallacy ¶ For fame is not due, as we have been led
to believe, solely to years of plodding toil. A thousand years of labor
could never have produced an Edison, a Marconi, a Curie, a Rockefeller,
a Roosevelt, a Wilson, a Bryan, a Ford, a Babe Ruth, a Carpentier,
a Mary Pickford, a Caruso, a Spencer or an Emerson. Fame’s Foundation ¶ The reserved seat in the tip-top peak of
the pyramid is procured only by him who has _found his real vocation_. To such a one _his_ work is not hard. No hours
are long enough to tire his body; no thought is difficult enough to
weary his mind; to him there is no day and no night, no quitting time,
no Saturday afternoons and no Sundays. He is at the business for which he
was created–and all is play. Edison Sleeps Four Hours ¶ Thomas A. Edison so loves his work that
he sleeps an average of less than four hours of each twenty-four. When
working out one of his experiments he forgets to eat, cares not whether
it is day or night and keeps his mind on his invention until it is
finished. Yet he has reached the age of seventy-four
with every mental and physical faculty doing one hundred per cent
service–and the prize place in the tip-top peak of the Wizards of
the World is his! He started at the very bottom layer, an orphan newsboy.
He made the journey to the pinnacle because early in life he found his
vocation. Failures Who Became Famous ¶ Each one of the world’s great successes
was a failure first. It is interesting to note the things at which
some of them failed. Darwin was a failure at the ministry, for
which he was educated. Herbert Spencer was a failure as an engineer, though
he struggled years in that profession. Abraham Lincoln was such a failure
at thirty-three as a lawyer that he refused an invitation to visit
an old friend “because,” he wrote, “I am such a failure I do not dare
to take the time.” Babe Ruth was a failure as a tailor. Hawthorne
was a failure as a Custom House clerk when he wrote the “Scarlet Letter.”
Theodore Roosevelt was a failure as a cowboy in North Dakota and gave
up his frontiering because of it. These men were failures because they tried
to do things for which they were not intended. But each at last found
his work, and when he did, it was so easy for him it made him famous. Play, Not Work, Brings Fame ¶ Fame comes only to the man, or woman, who
loves his work so well that it is not work but play. It comes only to
him who does something with marvellous efficiency. Work alone can not
produce that kind of efficiency. Outdistancing Competition ¶ Fame comes from doing one thing so much
better than your competitors that your results stand out above and beyond
the results of all others. Any man who will do efficiently any one of
the many things the world is crying for can place his own price upon his
work and get it. He can get it because the world gladly pays for what
it really wants, and because the efficient man has almost no competition. Efficiency Comes from Enjoyment ¶ But here’s the rub. You will never do anything
with that brilliant efficiency save what you LIKE TO DO. Efficiency
does not come from duty, or necessity, or goading, or lashing, or anything
under heaven save ENJOYMENT OF THE THING ITSELF. Nothing less will ever release those hidden
powers, those miraculous forces which, for the lack of a better name,
we call “genius.” Knowing What are _Not_ Your Vocations ¶ Elimination of what are distinctly NOT
your vocations will help you toward finding those that ARE. To that end
here are some tests which will clear up many things for you. They will
help you to know especially whether or not the vocations you have been
contemplating are fitted to you. How to Test Yourself ¶ Whenever you are considering your fitness
for any vocation, ask yourself these questions: _Self-Question 1–Am I considering this vocation
chiefly because I would enjoy the things it would bring–such as salary,
fame, social position or change of scene?_ If, in your heart, your answer is “Yes,” this
is not a vocation for you. The Movie Hopeful ¶ The above test can best be illustrated
by the story of a young woman who wanted to be told that she had ability
to act. “I am determined to go into the movies,” she told us. “Do you
think I would be a success?” “When you picture yourself in this profession
what do you see yourself doing?” we asked. “Oh, everything wonderful,” she replied. “I
see myself driving my own car–one of those cute little custom-made
ones, you know–and wearing the most stunning clothes and meeting all
those big movie stars–and living all the year round in California!” “Is that all you ever see yourself doing?”
we inquired. “Yes–but isn’t that enough?” “All but one–the acting.” She then admitted that in the eight years
she had been planning to enter the movies she had never once really visualized
herself acting, or studying any part, or doing any work–nothing
but rewards and emoluments. Pleasure or Pay? _Self-Question 2_–_Knowing the requirements
of this vocation–its tasks, drudgeries, hours of work, concentration
and kind of activity–would I choose to follow them in
preference to any other kind of activity even if the income were the
same?_ _Would I do these things for the=pleasure=
of doing them and not for the=pay=?_ If, in your heart, you can answer “Yes” to
these questions, your problem is settled; you will succeed in that vocation.
For you will so enjoy your work that it will be play. Being play,
you will do it so happily that you will get from it new strength each
day. Because you are doing what you were built
to do, you will think of countless improvements, inventions, ways of
marketing them. This will promote you over the others who are there
only for the pay envelope; it will raise your salary; it will eventually
and inevitably take you to the top. A man we know aptly illustrates this point.
He was a bookkeeper. He had held the same position for twenty-three years
and was getting $125 a month. He had little leisure but used all
he did have–evenings, Saturday afternoons, Sundays and his ten-day
vacations–making things. In that time he had built furniture for his
six-room house–every kind of article for the kitchen, bathroom and porch.
And into everything he had put little improving touches such as are
not manufactured in such things. We convinced him that his wife was not the
only woman who would appreciate these step-saving, work-reducing,
leisure-giving conveniences. He finally believed it enough
to patent some of his inventions, and today he is a rich man. Of “Your Own Accord” ¶ One more question will shed much light
on the matter of your talents. Here it is: _Self-Question 3_–_Do I tend to follow, of
my own accord, for the sheer joy of it, the=kinds of activity=demanded
by this vocation which I am contemplating?_ If you do not you will never succeed in this
line of work. Thought it Would Do Him Good ¶ One incident will serve to illustrate the
foregoing test. A young man asked us if he could succeed as a public speaker.
He had decided to become a lecturer and had spent two years
studying for that work. “Do you enjoy talking? Do you like to explain
and expatiate? When out with others do you furnish your share of the
conversation or a little more?” were the questions we put to him. To all of the questions he answered “No.” “But I thought this was just the line of work
I ought to go into,” he explained, “I have always been diffident and
I thought the training would do me good.” Life Pays the Producer ¶ Expecting the world to pay you handsomely
while remaking you is short-sighted, to say the least. The public
schools are free, like life’s education, but you don’t get a salary
for attending them. To be a success you must PRODUCE something
out of the ordinary for the world. And you will produce nothing unusual
save what your particular organism was built to produce. To know what
this is, classify the kind of activities you “take to” naturally. You
can be a star in some line that calls for those activities. You will
never succeed in any calling which demands the opposite kinds of activities
or reactions. The Worst Place for Her ¶ A few years ago, in San Francisco, a young
woman came to us for vocational advice. She had decided to find
an opening in a silk-importing establishment, for none of
whose duties she was qualified. When asked how she happened to
hit upon the thing for which she unquestionably had no ability, she said: “I thought it would give me a world outlook
(which I need); compel me to learn fabrics (something I think every woman
ought to know); force me to attend to details (which I have always hated
but which I must learn to master); and because it would bring me into
contact with people (I dislike them but think I should learn to deal
with them).” When Considering a Position ¶ When a position is being considered the
questions an applicant should be asking himself are, “What must I do in
this position? Am I qualified? Can I make good? Do I like the activities
demanded by this position?” But ninety-nine out of every hundred applicants
for a vacancy ask no question of themselves whatever, and only
one of anybody else. That question is to the employer and it is only
four words: “_What does it pay?_” He overlooks the fact that if the salary involved
is large enough to be attractive he will soon be severed from it
unless he makes good. He also forgets that if the salary is small he can
force it to grow if he is big enough himself. If the particular task he is considering does
not warrant a large salary, his employers will find one for him
that does if he shows he has ability. Every business in the world is looking for
people who can do a few things a trifle better than the mass of people
are doing them today, and whenever they find them they pay them well–because
it pays THEM in the long run. The Big-Salaried Men ¶ Don’t be afraid that you may develop ability
and then find no market for it. The only jobs that have to go begging
are the big-salaried ones, because the combination of intelligence and
efficiency is not easy to find. The men who are drawing from $10,000
to $50,000 a year are not supermen. They are not very different from
anybody else. But they found a line that fitted their particular talents,
and they went ahead cultivating those talents without asking for
everything in advance. Looking for “Chicken Feed” ¶ While touring through the Rockies last
summer we came one day to a log shack perched on the mountain-side near the
road. In the back-yard was the owner, just ready to feed his chickens.
As he flung out the grain they came from every direction, crowding and
jostling each other and frantically pecking for the tiny morsels he
threw on the ground. Several dozen flocked around him. But three or four
stayed on the outer edge, ready to scamper for the big grains he threw
now and then amongst the boulders up on the hillside. “I do that just to see them use their heads,”
he explained. “People are just like that. They rush for the little chances
where all the competition is, instead of staying out where
they can see a big chance when it comes.” Life is full of opportunities for every person
who will consult his own capacities and _aim for the big chance_. Causes of Misfits ¶ Various influences are responsible for
the misfit, chief amongst which are his loving parents. Many fathers and mothers,
with the best intentions in the world, urge their children
to enter vocations for which they have no natural fitness whatever.
These same parents often discourage in their children the very talents
which, if permitted to develop, would make them successful. Such a child has small chance in the world
if it happens that his parents are sufficiently well-to-do to hold
the purse strings on his training. Not until he has failed at the work
they choose for him will such parents desist. When they finally allow
him to take to the work he prefers they are usually surprised to see
how clever he is. But if he does not succeed at it they should
bear in mind that it is doubtless due to their having cheated him
out of his priceless youth–the years when the mind is moldable,
impressionable and full of inspiration. Poverty’s One Advantage ¶ In this situation alone does the child
of poverty-ridden parents have greater opportunities than the child of the
well-to-do. He at least chooses his own work, and this is one more
little reason why the world’s most successful men so often come from the
ranks of the poor. “Ruined by too much mothering and fathering”
is a verdict we would frequently render if we knew the facts. Richard and Dorothy ¶ One instance in which Fate took a hand
was very interesting. A New York widow, whose husband had left his large
fortune entirely to her, nursed definite ambitions for her son and
daughter. Richard, she had decided, should become a stock-raiser and
farmer on the several-thousand-acre ranch they owned in
Texas. Dorothy should study art in Paris. But it so happened that Richard and Dorothy
disliked the respective vocations laid out for them, while each wanted
to do the very thing the other was being driven to do. Richard was
small, dark, sensitive, esthetic–and bent on being an artist. Dorothy,
who was six feet in her stockings, laughed at art and wanted to be
a farmer. But mother was obdurate and mother held the
family purse. So, in the spring of 1914, Dorothy was sent to Paris
to study the art Richard loved, and Richard was sent to the Texas ranch
that Dorothy wanted. Then the War broke and Dorothy hurried from
Paris to avoid German shells, while Richard enlisted to escape the
Texas ranch. Dorothy, in her element at last, took over the ranch (of
which Richard had made a failure), turned it into one vast war garden,
became a farmerette and is there now–a shining success. Richard got to Paris during the War and when
it closed refused to come home. He wrote his mother that the war had
taught him he could earn his own living–an accomplishment he is achieving
today with his art. The mother herself is happier than she ever was
before, and proud of her children’s success. Three Kinds of Parents ¶ Parents can be divided into three classes–those
who over-estimate their children, those who under-estimate their
children, and those who do not estimate them at all. The great majority are in the first group.
This accounts for the fact that most fathers and mothers are disillusioned,
as their children, one by one, fall short of their cherished hopes. Those who under-estimate their children are
in that small group–of parents who live to be happily surprised at
their achievements. The best parents of all are those who allow
their children to follow their natural talents. Don’ts for Parents ¶ Don’t push your child into any vocation
he dislikes. Don’t be like the parents we dined with recently.
As we sat around the table they pointed out their four children
as follows: “There’s Georgie–we’re going to make a doctor of him.
Our best friend is a doctor. We’ll make a lawyer out of Johnnie.
There’s been a lawyer in the family for generations. Jimmie is to be a
minister. We thought it was about time we had one of them in the family.” “What about Helen?” we asked. “Oh, Helen–why, she’s going to marry and
have a nice home of her own.” Any student of Human Analysis would have recognized
that of this quartet of children not one was being directed into
the right vocation. He would have seen that the square-jawed Muscular Jimmie
would make a much better lawyer than a minister; that little Johnnie
should be a teacher or a lecturer; that fat Georgie was born for business
instead of medicine; and that Helen had more ability than any of
her brothers. The Woman Misfit ¶ Too many parents have gone on the theory
that belonging to the female sex was a sure indication of home-making,
mothering, housekeeping abilities. The commercial world is full of women who
have starved, wasted and shriveled their lives away behind counters,
desks and typewriters when they were meant for motherhood and wifehood. The homes of the land are also full of women
who, with the brains and effort they have given to scrubbing, washing
and cooking, could have become “captains of industry.” The Sealed Parcel ¶ If you are a parent don’t allow yourself
to set your heart on any particular line of work for your children.
Your child is a sealed parcel and only his own tendencies, as they appear
during youth, can tell what that parcel really contains. Allow these traits to unfold naturally, normally
and freely. Don’t complicate your own problem by trying to advise
him too soon. Don’t praise certain professions. Children are intensely
suggestible. The knowledge that father and mother consider
a certain profession especially desirable oftentimes influences
a child to waste time working toward it when he has no real ability for
it. Every hour of youth is precious and this wastage is unspeakably expensive. On the other hand, do not attempt to prejudice
your child _against_ any profession. Don’t let him think, for instance,
that you consider overalls a badge of inferiority, or a white
collar the mark of superiority. Many a man in blue denim today
could buy and sell the collar-and-cuff friends of his earlier years.
The size of a man’s laundry bill is no criterion of his income. Popular Misconceptions ¶ Other parents make the equally foolish
mistake of showing their dislike of certain professions. Not long ago
we heard a father say in the presence of his large family, “I don’t
want any of my boys to be lawyers. Lawyers are all liars. Ministers
are worse; they’re all a bunch of Sissies. Doctors are all fakes. Actors
are all bad eggs; and business is one big game of cheat or be cheated. I’m
going to see that every boy I’ve got becomes a farmer.” Misdirected Mothering ¶ A very unfortunate case came to our attention
several years ago. In Chicago a mother brought her eighteen-year-old
son to us for vocational counsel. “I am determined that James shall
be a minister,” she said. “My whole happiness depends upon it. I have worked,
slaved and sacrificed ever since his father died that he might have
the education for it. Now I want you to tell James to be a minister.” We refused to take the case, explaining that
our analyses didn’t come to order but had to fit the facts as we found
them. She still insisted upon the analysis. It revealed the fact that James
was deficient mentally, save in one thing. His capacity for observing
was lightning-like in its swiftness and microscopic in its completeness.
And his capacity for judging remote motives from immediate actions
was uncannily accurate. He was a human ferret, as had been proven
many times during his boyhood. At one time the jewelry store in which he
worked as a shipping clerk lost a valuable necklace, and after the police
of Chicago had failed to find a clew, James’ special ability was reported
and he was given a week’s vacation to work on the case. He took
the last three days for a long-desired trip to Milwaukee. He had landed
the thief in the first four. We told the mother that her boy’s ability
was about the farthest removed from the ministerial that could well
be imagined, but that he would make an excellent detective. “I shall never permit it!” she cried. “His
father was a policeman. I distrust that whole class of people! I am
taking James to the theological seminary tomorrow”–and away she
went with him. Two months later she came to us in great distress. She
had received a letter from the Dean saying James had attended but one
day’s classes. Then he had announced that he was going home. Instead
he had cultivated a gang of underworld crooks for the purpose of investigating
their methods and had gotten into serious trouble. Nevers for All ¶ Never choose a vocation just because it
looks _profitable_. It won’t bring profits to you long unless you are built
for it. Never choose a vocation just because it looks
_easy_. No work will be easy for you except that which Nature intended
for you. Never choose a vocation just because it permits
the wearing of _good clothes_. You need more than a permit; you
need ability. Never choose a vocation just because the _hours
are short_. You can’t fool employers that way. They also know they
are short, and pay you accordingly. The extra play these leisure
hours give you will amount to nothing but loss to you ten years hence. Never choose a vocation just because it is
_popular_ or _sounds interesting_. “I am going to be a private secretary,” said
a young woman near us at the theater recently. “What will you have to do?” asked her friend. “Oh, I don’t know,” the girl answered, “but
it sounds so fascinating, don’t you think?” Never turn your back on a profession just
because it is _old-fashioned, middle class or ordinary_. If you have talents
fitting you for such vocations you are lucky, for these are the
ones for which there is the greatest demand. Demand is a big help. If
you can add a new touch to such a one you are made. Why She Taught German ¶ Never choose a vocation just because your
_friends_ are in it, nor refuse another just because your worst enemy
is in it. Two friends come to mind in this connection.
One is a splendid woman we knew at college. She became a German teacher
and up to the outbreak of the War had an instructorship in a western
state university. The elimination of German lost her the position. “Why did you ever choose German, anyhow, Ruth?”
we asked her. “Your abilities lie in such a different direction.” “Because my favorite teacher in high school
taught German,” she replied. Enemies and Engineering ¶ An opposite case is that of a friend of
ours who has worked in an uncongenial profession for thirty years. “You
were meant for engineering, Tom,” we told him. “With all
the leanings you had in that direction, how did it happen you didn’t follow
it?” “Because the man who cheated my father out
of all he had was an engineer!” he said. Never choose a new vocation just because you
are _restless_. You will be more so if you get into the wrong one. The “Society” Delusion ¶ Never choose a vocation just because it
promises _social standing_. The entree it gives will fail you unless you
make good. And social standing isn’t worth much anyhow. When you
are in the work for which you were born you won’t worry about social standing.
It will come to you then whether you want it or not. And when
it does you will care very little about it. The Entering Wedge ¶ Never take a certain job _for life_ just
because people are _dependent_ upon you. Save enough to live
one month without a job, preparing yourself meanwhile for an entering
wedge into a vocation you do like. Then take a smaller-paying place
if necessary to get started. If you really like the work you will do it
so well you will promote yourself. You owe it to those who are dependent
upon you to do this. Jack of All Trades ¶ Never do anything just to show you _can_.
Don’t let your versatility tempt you into following a number of lines
of work for the purpose of demonstrating your ability. Versatility can
be the greatest handicap of all; it tempts you to neglect intensive study,
to flit, to become a “jack of all trades and master of none.” Only Three Kinds of Work ¶ There are but three general classes of
work. They are: WORK WITH PEOPLE;
WORK WITH THINGS; WORK WITH IDEAS. Each individual is fitted by nature to do
one of these _better_ than the others and there will be one class for which
he has the _least_ ability. In the other one of the three he might make
a mediocre success. Every individual should find a vocation furnishing
that one of these three kinds of work for which he has the _greatest_
ability. Then he should go into the particular _branch_ of that vocation
which is best adapted to his personality, training, education, environment and experience. * * * * * Part One VOCATIONS FOR ALIMENTIVES ¶ As stated in Chapter I, Alimentives are
born for business. They can sell almost anything in the line of food,
clothing, or shelter because they are so interested in them themselves
they can make them interesting to others. They like money for the comforts
which money alone can bring and business furnishes a wider field for money-making
than any other. So the Alimentive likes the commercial world
for itself and for what it brings him. Sells Things to People ¶ The Alimentive can deal with both people
and things, but it should be in the capacity of selling the things to the
people. Chances for Money-Making ¶ The Alimentives have the greatest opportunities
today for making fortunes and many of the multi-millionaires
of America are combinations of this type with the Cerebral. This is due
to the fact that the world must be fed, clothed and sheltered and the
Alimentive, more than any other type, excels in the marketing, manufacturing
and merchandizing of these things. A Good Overseer ¶ The Alimentive makes an excellent overseer
also. He is so genial, likable and yet so bent on saving himself
work that he can get more work out of others than can any other type. So he succeeds as a foreman, supervisor, boss,
superintendent, manager and sales department head. Capitalizes His “Comfort” Instincts ¶ The Alimentive loves comforts. He feels
he must have them. Because any man’s success will be found to lie in the
direction which most nearly satisfies his basic instincts, the Alimentive
succeeds by making “the good things of life” look so interesting to
others they are willing to buy them from him at the best prices. The Alimentively Inclined ¶ Every man who is largely Alimentive in
type can sell commodities or oversee the work of others. Every woman who
is largely Alimentive can also sell the same commodities, oversee the
work of others in her department and become a good cook. Things to Avoid ¶ The Alimentive should avoid vocations dealing
exclusively with ideas. Books are almost the only things an Alimentive
can not sell successfully. This is due to the fact that
he is not as interested in ideas as in things, and the things he is interested
in–food and comforts–are the farthest removed from books. Partners to Select ¶ When he goes into partnership the Alimentive
should endeavor to do so with a practical Muscular, a clever Thoracic
or another Alimentive. Partners and Employees to Avoid ¶ He should avoid as partners the pure Cerebrals
and the pure Osseous. The former are too high brow and visionary
for him, and the Osseous are too critical of his easy ways. Bosses to Avoid ¶ The Alimentive, when looking for employment,
should try to avoid the boss who is a pure Cerebral or a pure Osseous.
The Cerebral may be a good planner but his plans and those of the
Alimentives will not work well together. The Cerebral can not see the
Alimentive’s point of view clearly enough to forgive him for his too
primitive methods. The pure Osseous boss soon becomes disgusted because
the Alimentive is so lacking in system. He usually comes out all
right in the end, but the orderly Osseous is too exasperated by what
he considers the Alimentive’s slackness, to wait for the end. Localities to Avoid ¶ The Alimentive should avoid all frontiers.
He can not work well without conveniences, and since these are
few and far between in unsettled regions it is much more difficult
for him to be a success there. Vocations for Pure Alimentives ¶ Cooking, catering, nursing, merchandizing
of all food and drink stuffs, the conducting of cafes, restaurants,
hotels, cafeterias, rest rooms and all places maintained for the ease,
comfort and feeding of mankind, are the general vocations for pure
or extreme Alimentives. Vocations for Alimentive-Thoracics ¶ The merchandizing of the artistic, novel
and esthetic in food, clothing and shelter; conducting of tea rooms,
confectionery stores, smart specialty and clothing shops. Salesmanship
of restricted residence districts, fancy cars, etc. Vocations for Alimentive-Musculars ¶ The merchandizing of more practical commodities
such as potatoes, meat, middle class homes, durable clothing.
Alimentive-Muscular women make excellent dressmakers. Vocations for the Alimentive-Osseous ¶ Merchandizing of farms, ranches, timber,
lumber, hardware. Bond salesmanship. Vocations for Alimentive-Cerebrals ¶ Merchandizing, manufacturing and marketing
of food, clothing and shelter commodities on a large scale in world
markets. This type combination exists in most of the world’s
millionaires. * * * * * Part Two VOCATIONS FOR THORACICS ¶ The Thoracic type works best with people.
Every person in whom this type predominates will make his greatest success
only in vocations bringing him into contact with people. The Born Entertainer ¶ As we have pointed out, the Thoracic is
a born entertainer. His greatest abilities lie in the direction of
the stage and all forms of its activities. Capitalizes His Approbative Instincts ¶ The Thoracic loves the approval and applause
of others. He is clever, dazzling, often scintillating, brilliant and
magnetic. All these enable him to win fame behind the foot-lights, upon
the screen and in many lines of theatrical work. His gregarious instincts
also enable him to make a success of work with others. Chances for Money-Making ¶ His chances for making a great deal of
money are excellent. A thousand dollars a week is not an unusual salary for
an entertainer and the thousand-dollar-a-night singer is no longer
a rarity. These always belong to the Thoracic type, for reasons stated
in Chapter II. Chances for Money-Spending ¶ But when the stage gives him a large income
it also furnishes the companions and temptations for spending money
freely. Even the Thoracic of fame seldom has much money. Also his own
irresponsibility makes it difficult for him to save. Work to Avoid ¶ The Thoracic should avoid every line of
work which has to be done the same way day in and day out. He must avoid
routine in every form. Monotonous work is not for him. Things to Avoid ¶ Things the Thoracic must avoid are the
mechanical–for these demand to be used in the same way always. The Thoracic
does not like to do anything over and over. Should Not Work Alone ¶ The Thoracic should never work alone. He
should not go into any vocation where he is separated from his fellows.
The loneliness and drabness of working away from people are fatal
to his best effort. Business Partners to Select ¶ The Thoracic should select Muscular business
partners because of their practicalizing influence. Second choice for
him is an Alimentive partner and third is a Thoracic like himself. Partners and Employees to Avoid ¶ The Thoracic should avoid Osseous employees
and Osseous partners, for the reason that this type can no more understand
the Thoracic than it can understand the easy-going Alimentive.
These two types are at opposite ends of the pole, and to blend them
harmoniously in any relationship is almost impossible. The Thoracic
employer, who always wants things done instantly, is maddened by
the slow, unadaptable Osseous employee. Bosses to Avoid ¶ For the reasons stated above, every Thoracic
person should avoid working for extremely bony people. The Osseous
is as much irritated by the rapid-fire reactions of the Thoracic employee
as the Thoracic is by the slowness of the Osseous. Localities to Avoid ¶ The Thoracic individual should avoid all
localities which would cut him off from his kind. He should never, except
when combined with the Osseous in type, live in remote regions, on
the edge of civilization or too far away from neighbors. Companionship
is always essential to his happiness and success. Vocations for the Pure Thoracics ¶ Art, advertising, comic opera, grand opera,
concert singing, the stage, the screen and all forms of high class
reception work are the lines for pure Thoracics. For Thoracic-Alimentives ¶ Medicine, merchandizing of artistic, esthetic
commodities, life insurance, moving pictures, novelty salesmanship,
and demonstrating. For Thoracic-Musculars ¶ Vocal and instrumental music, interior
decoration, politics, social service, advertising, athletics and design. For Thoracic-Osseous ¶ Landscape gardening, scientific research,
the ministry. For Thoracic-Cerebrals ¶ Authorship, private secretaryship, education,
journalism, musical composition, publicity work, photography. * * * * * Part Three VOCATIONS FOR MUSCULARS ¶ The Muscular works best with things. He
does not sell them as well as does the Alimentive–for the things he is
interested in are not the things that sell but the things that move.
He likes to work with high-powered cars, machinery of all kinds,
and everything that involves motion. These things, though necessities sometimes
and luxuries occasionally, are not such necessities as
food, clothing and homes. Therefore there is no such market for them.
The automobile has almost made itself a necessity, but even it is not
yet as necessary to human happiness as food, clothing or shelter. The Born Mechanic and Inventor ¶ The Muscular is the born mechanic and inventor.
He enjoys working with things he can handle, mold, change, construct
and improve with his powerful, efficient hands. Most of the mechanics
of the world are Musculars and every inventor has the Muscular
element strongly marked in him. Chances for Money-Making ¶ The Muscular’s chances for making money
are not as great as those of the Alimentive, for the reason that he deals
best with things the world can sometimes get along without. His money-making
chances are not as great as those of the Thoracic, for he is
not fitted to win the public favor which comes to the latter. Also the
Muscular’s vocations are not as well paid as those of the two former types,
unless his inventions are successful. The Orator ¶ Oratory furnishes one of the best fields
for the Muscular’s money-making and fame-achieving opportunities.
Every man and woman who has acquired fame or fortune on the public
platform has much of the Muscular type in his makeup–always, however,
in combination with the Cerebral. Capitalizes His Activity Instincts ¶ As shown in Chapter III, the Muscular,
like the other types, capitalizes his chief instinct. In his case
it is the instinct of activity. The Muscular likes activity, so
he likes work, and because he is a good worker he nearly always has work
to do. The Muscularly Inclined ¶ Every person Muscularly inclined can make
a success at something of a practical nature, in the handling, running,
driving, constructing or inventing of machinery. Things to Avoid ¶ The Muscular should avoid all vocations
which confine him within small areas, pin him down to inactivity or sedentary
work. Business Partners to Select ¶ The Musculars should select Musculars as
their first choice in business partners, with Cerebrals second and
Thoracics third. Partners and Employees to Avoid ¶ The Muscular should avoid the Osseous partner,
the Osseous boss and the Osseous employee because his pugnacity
makes it almost impossible for him to work harmoniously with this type. Localities to Avoid ¶ The Muscular can work in almost any locality.
But he should avoid every place which keeps him too closely confined. Vocations for Pure Musculars ¶ The driving of high-powered cars, airplanes,
machinery of all kinds, and work with his hands are the lines in which
the average Muscular is most often successful. Other lines for him
are construction, civil engineering, mechanics, professional dancing,
acrobatics, athletics and pugilism. Women of this type make splendid physical
culture teachers and expert swimmers. For Muscular-Alimentives ¶ The manufacturing and selling of practical
foods, clothing and shelter; also politics. For Muscular-Thoracics ¶ Advertising, sculpture, osteopathy, athletics,
exploration, medicine, baritone and tenor singing, instrumental music,
politics, social service, transportation, designing and dentistry. For Muscular-Osseous ¶ Construction, bridge building, office law,
policemen and police women, mechanics, mining. For Muscular-Cerebrals ¶ Architecture, art, journalism, trial or
jury law, oratory, surgery, transportation. Teachers and tragedians also
come from this type. * * * * * Part Four VOCATIONS FOR THE OSSEOUS ¶ The Osseous man or woman can do his best
work with things. Those with which he works best are lands, forests, the
sea, the plains, the mountains and certain kinds of mechanical
things. Instead of combining things and people in
his work, like the Alimentive; machines and people, like the Muscular; or
people only, like the Thoracic, the Osseous must not only confine
himself almost exclusively to working with things, but he must work with
them away from the interference or interruption or superintendence
of other people. Capitalizes His Independence Instinct ¶ The Osseous, like other types, succeeds
in work which automatically brings into play his basic instincts. His
fundamental instinct is that of _independence_. He never succeeds signally
in any line of work in which this instinct is repressed or thwarted. He chafes against restriction, enjoys mastering
a thing and when let alone to work in his own way he makes an excellent
employee. As has been stated, he is the “steadiest” of all. Chances for Money-Making ¶ Chances for the Osseous to make a great
deal of money are few. Unless he confines himself to finance–working as
exclusively with money as possible–or to dealing with natural resources,
the Osseous seldom becomes rich. He cares more for money than any of the other
types, saves a much larger portion of what he earns, and no matter how
rich, is seldom extravagant. His greatest obstacle to money-making is his
tendency to hang on to whatever he has, awaiting the rise in prices
which never go quite high enough to suit him. An Osseous friend of ours has lived for forty
years on almost nothing while holding, for a fabulous price, an old
residential corner on a desirable block of a downtown street in one
of the large American cities. He could have sold it years ago for
enough to make him comfortable for life, to give him travel,
leisure, comforts and self-expression, but he refused. As has been pointed out before, each individual
prefers the self-expression common to his type. This man
has found more of what is real self-expression to him in defying the
destruction of this building and the march of commerce in that neighborhood,
and in opposing prospective buyers, than all the money-bought
comforts in the world could have given him. So he has worked away as a draughtsman at
a small salary eight hours a day for those forty years. He is unmarried
and has no brothers or sisters. When he dies remote relatives whom
he has never seen and who care nothing for him will sell the property
and have a good time on the money. But they will have no better time spending
it than he has had saving it! Those Who are Inclined to the Osseous ¶ Every person with a large Osseous element
is capable of saving money, of being a faithful worker under right conditions
and of withstanding hardship in his work. Difficult missions into
pioneer regions are successful only when entrusted to men or women
who have the Osseous as one of their first two elements. The North Pole ¶ It is a significant fact that all the men
who have made signal efforts at finding the North and South Poles have
possessed the bony as a large proportion of their makeup. No extremely fat
man has ever attempted such a thing. Missionaries ¶ It is also interesting to note that the
most successful missionaries have had a larger-than-average bony system
and that all those who go into the extreme edges of civilization and
stay there any length of time are largely of this type. Other types plan to become missionaries and
some get as far as to be sent somewhere, but those who stick, who spend
years in the far corners of the earth, are always largely Osseous. Things to Avoid ¶ The Osseous must avoid all vocations demanding
his constant or intimate contact with large numbers of people,
every kind of work that calls for instantaneous movements, sudden
adaptations to environment, many or sudden decisions, or crowded workrooms. _He must avoid working for, with, under or
over others._ Business Partners to Select ¶ The Osseous should never have a partner
if he can help it. When he can not help it, he should choose
a person of large Cerebral tendencies, for no other type will stand for
his peculiarities. Partners and Employees to Avoid ¶ He should avoid, above all things, a partner
who is Osseous like himself. An Osseous always knows what he wants
to do, how he wants to do it, and when. And one of the requirements
with him usually is that it must be the opposite of the thing, manner
and time desired by the other fellow. So in business, as in marriage, two Osseous
people find themselves in unending warfare. He should avoid the Osseous
employee also for the same reasons, and choose the only types that will
submit to his hard driving. Bosses to Avoid ¶ The Osseous should never work for a boss
when he has brains enough to work alone. He is so independent that it is
almost impossible for him to take orders, and the “contrary streak” in
him runs so deep that he is just naturally against what others want him
to do. He is the most insubordinate of all types
as an employee and as a boss is the most inexorable. Localities to Avoid ¶ The Osseous should avoid all congested
communities. He does not belong in the city. Except in some vocation where
he handles money, he seldom succeeds in a metropolis. His field is the frontier–the great open
spaces of land, sea, forest and mountain–where he works with things that
grow, that are not sensitive, that do not offer human resistance
to his imperious, dominating nature. Vocations for Pure Osseous ¶ Farming, stock-raising, lumbering, lighthouse
keeping, open-sea fishing, hardware, saw-milling and all pioneering
activities are the vocations in which the unmixed Osseous succeeds
best. For Osseous-Alimentives ¶ Work as a farm hand, sheep or cattle herder,
or truck gardener are the lines in which this combination succeeds best.
He can do clerical work also. For Osseous-Thoracics ¶ Agriculture, carpentering, railroading,
mining, office law, electrical and chemical engineering are the first choices
for this combination. Both men and women of this type succeed on
police forces also. For Osseous-Cerebrals ¶ The invention of intricate mechanical devices
is something in which this combination often succeeds. Other lines
for him are those of statistician, mathematician, proof-reader,
expert accountant, genealogist and banker. * * * * * Part Five VOCATIONS FOR CEREBRALS ¶ The Cerebral man or woman can never be
happy or successful until he is in work that deals with ideas. But his planning
is often impractical and for this reason he does not succeed when working
independently as does the Osseous. Capitalizes His Cerebrative Instinct ¶ The Cerebral gets his name from the cerebrum
or thinking part of the brain, because this is the system most highly
evolved in him. Its great size in the large-headed man causes it to
dominate his life. Thus his chief instinct is cerebration–dreaming,
meditating, visualizing, planning. Since these are the
real starters of all progress this type should be encouraged, with a view
to making him more practical. The Born Writer ¶ The brain system is large in all men and
women who achieve distinction in writing, or in other lines where the brain
does most of the work. Unless combined with the Muscular, this man
writes much better than he talks and usually avoids speech-making. When
the Muscular is combined with the Cerebral he will be an excellent
lecturer or teacher. Chances for Money-Making ¶ The pure Cerebral has the least likelihood
of making money of any of the types, for the reasons stated in Chapter
V. If he is a pure Cerebral his ideas and writings,
however brilliant, will seldom bring him financial independence unless
he gets a Muscular, Thoracic or Alimentive business manager and
strictly follows his directions. The Cerebrally Inclined ¶ Any person inclined to the Cerebral type–that
is, with a large, wide, high forehead or a large head for his body–will
succeed in some line of work where study and mental effort are required. Things to Avoid ¶ The pure Cerebral should avoid every kind
of work that calls for manual or bodily effort, physical strenuosity,
lifting of heavy things, or the handling of large machines. He should
avoid every kind of work that gives no outlet for planning or thinking.
He should avoid being an employer because he sees the employee’s viewpoint
so clearly that he lives in his skin instead of his own. This
means that he does not get the service out of employees that other types
get. He is not fitted in any way to rule others,
dislikes to dominate them, feels like apologizing all the time for compelling
them to do things, and is made generally miserable by this responsibility. Business Partners to Select ¶ The selection of a partner is one of greater
importance to the Cerebral than to any other type, for it is
almost impossible for him to work out his plans alone. It is as necessary for the Cerebral to have
a partner as it is for the Osseous not to have one. This partner should be a person largely of
the Muscular type, to supply the practicality the Cerebral lacks. As a
second choice he should be of the Thoracic type, to supply the gregariousness
which the Cerebral lacks. The third choice should be an Osseous,
to supply the quality which can get work out of employees and thus
make up for the lax treatment the Cerebral tends to give his subordinates. Partners and Employees to Avoid ¶ Though he succeeds well when he is himself
a combination of Alimentive and Cerebral, the pure Cerebral should avoid
partners and employees who are purely Alimentive. Their ideas and attitudes
are too far away from his own for them to succeed co-operatively. Localities to Avoid ¶ The Cerebral can work in any locality,
partly from the fact that every spot in the world interests him. But he should
avoid ranches, livestock farms, lumber camps, construction gangs, ditch-digging
and saw-milling jobs, for he lacks the physical strength to
stand up to them. Vocations for Pure Cerebrals ¶ Education, teaching, library work, authorship,
literary criticism, and philosophy are the vocations best fitted to
the pure Cerebral. For Cerebral-Alimentives ¶ This combination comprises the majority
of the world’s millionaires, for it combines the intense alimentive desires
for life’s comforts with the extreme brain capacity necessary to get
them. So he becomes a “magnate,” a man of “big business,” and tends
to high finance, manufacturing and merchandizing on a world-scale. For Cerebral-Thoracics ¶ Journalism, the ministry, teaching, photography,
interior decorating, magazine editing, are among the vocations
best suited to this type. The best educational directors for large department
stores and other establishments, and some of the best comedians,
belong to this combination. For Cerebral-Musculars ¶ Manual education, trial or jury law, invention
of all kinds of machinery, social service, oratory, teaching,
lecturing, and nose and throat surgery are the best lines of work
for this combination. For Cerebral-Osseous ¶ Authorship, finance, statistics, invention
of complex mechanical devices, expert accounting and mathematics
are the best lines for this combination. ¶ SO HERE, THEN, ENDETH “_THE FIVE HUMAN
TYPES_,” BEING THE FIRST VOLUME IN THE WORLD TO EXPOUND SCIENCE’S DISCOVERY
THAT ALL HUMAN BEINGS FALL INTO FIVE DEFINITE DIVISIONS ACCORDING TO
THEIR BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION. BY _ELSIE LINCOLN BENEDICT_, FIRST WRITER AND
PUBLISHER OF THIS CLASSIFICATION, FIRST LECTURER IN THE WORLD
TO PRESENT IT TO THE PUBLIC, AND FIRST COMPILER OF THE SCIENCE OF _HUMAN
ANALYSIS_. ALSO BY _RALPH PAINE BENEDICT_, WHOSE KNOWLEDGE AND CO-OPERATION
INSPIRED THE DOING OF ALL THESE, PRINTED AND MADE INTO A BOOK BY
THE ROYCROFTERS AT THEIR SHOPS WHICH ARE AT EAST AURORA, ERIE COUNTY
AND STATE OF NEW YORK, IN THE YEAR NINETEEN HUNDRED AND TWENTY-ONE. +———————————————————————-+
| | | Transcriber’s Note |
| | | The following spelling corrections have
been made:– | | |
| Page 5 ‘places’ to ‘placed’ ‘placed the finished product’ |
| | | Page 28 ‘superficialties’ to ‘superficialities’
‘superficialities | | sway us’ |
| | | Page 66 ‘ballon’ to ‘balloon’ ‘or a toy
balloon’ | | |
| Page 75 ‘qualitiy’ to ‘quality’ ‘marked emotional quality’ |
| | | Page 149 ‘smilingy’ to ‘smilingly’ ‘we remonstrated
smilingly’ | | |
| Page 151 ‘envolved’ to ‘involved’ ‘there was involved’ |
| | | Page 251 ‘posses’ to ‘possess’ ‘be said
to possess’ | | |
| Page 255 ‘fraility’ to ‘frailty’ ‘his physical frailty’ |
| | | Page 275 ‘directled’ to ‘directed’ ‘to whom
they are directed’ | | |
| Page 288 ‘handerkerchief’ to handkerchief’ ‘picks up her |
| handkerchief’ | | |
| Page 315 ‘comtemplating’ to ‘contemplating’ ‘have been |
| contemplating’ | | |
| Page 350 ‘intrusted’ to ‘entrusted’ ‘only when entrusted’ |
| | | References to chart numbers is a reference
to illustrations 1 to 10. | | |
| | +———————————————————————-+

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